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Survey on 3D face reconstruction from uncalibrated images

by   Araceli Morales, et al.

Recently, a lot of attention has been focused on the incorporation of 3D data into face analysis and its applications. Despite providing a more accurate representation of the face, 3D face images are more complex to acquire than 2D pictures. As a consequence, great effort has been invested in developing systems that reconstruct 3D faces from an uncalibrated 2D image. However, the 3D-from-2D face reconstruction problem is ill-posed, thus prior knowledge is needed to restrict the solutions space. In this work, we review 3D face reconstruction methods in the last decade, focusing on those that only use 2D pictures captured under uncontrolled conditions. We present a classification of the proposed methods based on the technique used to add prior knowledge, considering three main strategies, namely, statistical model fitting, photometry, and deep learning, and reviewing each of them separately. In addition, given the relevance of statistical 3D facial models as prior knowledge, we explain the construction procedure and provide a comprehensive list of the publicly available 3D facial models. After the exhaustive study of 3D-from-2D face reconstruction approaches, we observe that the deep learning strategy is rapidly growing since the last few years, matching its extension to that of the widespread statistical model fitting. Unlike the other two strategies, photometry-based methods have decreased in number since the required strong assumptions cause the reconstructions to be of more limited quality than those resulting from model fitting and deep learning methods. The review also identifies current gaps and suggests avenues for future research.


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