Spectral embedding for dynamic networks with stability guarantees

06/02/2021 ∙ by Ian Gallagher, et al. ∙ 0

We consider the problem of embedding a dynamic network, to obtain time-evolving vector representations of each node, which can then be used to describe the changes in behaviour of a single node, one or more communities, or the entire graph. Given this open-ended remit, we wish to guarantee stability in the spatio-temporal positioning of the nodes: assigning the same position, up to noise, to nodes behaving similarly at a given time (cross-sectional stability) and a constant position, up to noise, to a single node behaving similarly across different times (longitudinal stability). These properties are defined formally within a generic dynamic latent position model. By showing how this model can be recast as a multilayer random dot product graph, we demonstrate that unfolded adjacency spectral embedding satisfies both stability conditions, allowing, for example, spatio-temporal clustering under the dynamic stochastic block model. We also show how alternative methods, such as omnibus, independent or time-averaged spectral embedding, lack one or the other form of stability.

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