Space-time reduced basis methods for parametrized unsteady Stokes equations

by   Riccardo Tenderini, et al.

In this work, we analyse space-time reduced basis methods for the efficient numerical simulation of haemodynamics in arteries. The classical formulation of the reduced basis (RB) method features dimensionality reduction in space, while finite differences schemes are employed for the time integration of the resulting ordinary differential equation (ODE). Space-time reduced basis (ST-RB) methods extend the dimensionality reduction paradigm to the temporal dimension, projecting the full-order problem onto a low-dimensional spatio-temporal subspace. Our goal is to investigate the application of ST-RB methods to the unsteady incompressible Stokes equations, with a particular focus on stability. High-fidelity simulations are performed using the Finite Element (FE) method and BDF2 as time marching scheme. We consider two different ST-RB methods. In the first one - called ST–GRB - space-time model order reduction is achieved by means of a Galerkin projection; a spatio-temporal supremizers enrichment procedure is introduced to guarantee stability. The second method - called ST-PGRB - is characterized by a Petrov-Galerkin projection, stemming from a suitable minimization of the FOM residual, that allows to automatically attain stability. The classical RB method - denoted as SRB-TFO - serves as a baseline for theoretical development. Numerical tests have been conducted on an idealized symmetric bifurcation geometry and on the patient-specific one of a femoropopliteal bypass. The results show that both ST-RB methods provide accurate approximations of the high-fidelity solutions, while considerably reducing the computational cost. In particular, the ST-PGRB method exhibits the best performance, as it features a better computational efficiency while retaining accuracies in accordance with theoretical expectations.


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