SPAA: Stealthy Projector-based Adversarial Attacks on Deep Image Classifiers

by   Bingyao Huang, et al.

Light-based adversarial attacks aim to fool deep learning-based image classifiers by altering the physical light condition using a controllable light source, e.g., a projector. Compared with physical attacks that place carefully designed stickers or printed adversarial objects, projector-based ones obviate modifying the physical entities. Moreover, projector-based attacks can be performed transiently and dynamically by altering the projection pattern. However, existing approaches focus on projecting adversarial patterns that result in clearly perceptible camera-captured perturbations, while the more interesting yet challenging goal, stealthy projector-based attack, remains an open problem. In this paper, for the first time, we formulate this problem as an end-to-end differentiable process and propose Stealthy Projector-based Adversarial Attack (SPAA). In SPAA, we approximate the real project-and-capture operation using a deep neural network named PCNet, then we include PCNet in the optimization of projector-based attacks such that the generated adversarial projection is physically plausible. Finally, to generate robust and stealthy adversarial projections, we propose an optimization algorithm that uses minimum perturbation and adversarial confidence thresholds to alternate between the adversarial loss and stealthiness loss optimization. Our experimental evaluations show that the proposed SPAA clearly outperforms other methods by achieving higher attack success rates and meanwhile being stealthier.


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