Software Verification with PDR: Implementation and Empirical Evaluation of the State of the Art

by   Dirk Beyer, et al.

Property-directed reachability (PDR) is a SAT/SMT-based reachability algorithm that incrementally constructs inductive invariants. After it was successfully applied to hardware model checking, several adaptations to software model checking have been proposed. We contribute a replicable and thorough comparative evaluation of the state of the art: We (1) implemented a standalone PDR algorithm and, as improvement, a PDR-based auxiliary-invariant generator for k-induction, and (2) performed an experimental study on the largest publicly available benchmark set of C verification tasks, in which we explore the effectiveness and efficiency of software verification with PDR. The main contribution of our work is to establish a reproducible baseline for ongoing research in the area by providing a well-engineered reference implementation and an experimental evaluation of the existing techniques.



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