Creativity is one of the most sought-after skills, with recognized benefits in education, mental health, and professional success robinson2011out ; collard2014nurturing . It is associated with states of joy, play, efficiency, and pleasure baer2017content ; kaufman2018creativity . When stimulated in childhood, it promotes overall development with specific benefits in learning and adaptation. gardner2008art . Creativity has been stimulated through the use of different intervention programs with promising effectiveness levels, demonstrating the potential to develop creativity with proper training scott2004types ; ma2009effect . However, most of these interventions developed for children lack elements of joy and fun. Therefore, they are considered similar to test-like exercises that can hinder their creative expression. The fast pace of technology development enabled the design of new tools for exploring the context of creativity stimulation shneiderman2009creativity (e.g., the CUBUS virtual environment for storytelling with emotionally evocative characters pires2017cubus ).
In our work, we aim to expand the range of technologies used for creativity stimulation by incorporating social robots to catalyze this ability. With this in mind, we designed and developed YOLO (Your Own Living Object), an original social robot to be used as a toy during children’s play times (see Figure 1). YOLO belongs to a new generation of technological toys meant to stimulate creative abilities in children. This robot is envisioned as a character children use during storytelling. By having a small-size and a light-weight design, YOLO can be manipulated by children as if it was a traditional toy while children create stories with it (similarly to what they do with dolls or car toys). The added-value of this robot is that it can increase the creative thought process of children during story creation by providing novel ideas for storylines. Because YOLO is a non-anthropomorphic robot, it interacts with children using alternative but effective interactive modalities. These comprise variable motion and illumination profiles. In this paper, we detail the artificial intelligence software of YOLO. The software is composed of Creativity and Social Behaviors whose design was grounded on creativity research smith1998idea , the Big Five personality model john1999big , and co-design sessions with children alves2017yolo . We release the robot’s software ***Download YOLO Software: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software along with its installation guide†††Link to YOLO Software installation guide: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki in open access. This software should be exclusively installed on YOLO hardware alves2019guide ).
2 Related work
2.1 Background on creativity research
As societies develop into creativity-based economies, innovative and creative problem solving and the ability to collaborate are becoming must-have skills florida2005cities ; robinson2011out . However, around the age of – years old there is a decline in children’s creativity abilities known as the “creative crisis” kim2011creativity . Research has shown that everyone has the potential to be creative and that creativity can be nurtured if stimulated runco2004everyone ; sawyer2003creativity . In our work, we aim to contribute to the increase in children’s creativity by using a social robot. It therefore becomes imperative to stimulate this ability at a young age. In particular, emphasizing the school environment where children spend most of their time. While some schools already feature activities (e.g., storytelling) to support the promotion of children’s creative thinking di2010collective , current activities can be challenging to integrate into traditional classroom formats as they need preparation time and are not formally included in the school curriculum chan2014personal . Technologies — such as social robots — appear as a more effective tool to apply in these contexts.
2.2 Robots for creativity
Robots have been programmed with a deep variety of socially intelligent behaviors and affective states; thus, permitting robots to be perceived as social actors breazeal2004designing ; reeves1996people . Additionally, due to their physical and interactive nature, they become a technology that can uniquely impact creativity stimulation. Ali, Moroso, and Breazel ali2019can demonstrated that a robot displaying creative behaviors positively influenced the creativity of children. The authors found that children who interacted with a creative robot generated more ideas, explored more themes, and were more original, than children who interacted with a non-creative robot ali2019can . Additionally, Gordon et al. gordon2015can demonstrated that children become more curious, an important creativity trait, when interacting with a curious robot. The authors found that these children posed more questions and become avid explores, compared to children who interacted with a non-curious robot gordon2015can .
3 Software description
In our work, we developed software that gives life to the social robot YOLO, whose interaction is composed of Creativity and Social Behaviors.
|Touch sensor||Ability to recognize when the robot is being touched.||LED lights||The robot displays white lights while being touched, refrains from performing any behavior. When not sensing touch, the robot displays colors associated with its different social behaviors.|
|Optical sensor||Recognition of play patterns of children while manipulating the robot.||Omni wheels||Imitating the collected movement patterns.|
|Time||Stage of the storytelling that children are currently engaged in.||Omni wheels and LED lights||The robot performs a creativity technique according to the storytelling arc.|
3.1 Creativity behavior
In our specific application scenario, YOLO acts as a character that can trigger new directions in children’s stories that otherwise would not emerge. During story creation, a combination of divergent (i.e., broad gathering of multiple ideas) and convergent thinking (i.e., narrowing down possibilities to create a coherent story plot) is required alrutz2015digital ; brenner2016design ; elbow1983teaching . We have chosen two techniques to stimulate creativity, named “contrast”and “mirror” smith1998idea (see Figure 2)‡‡‡Parameterization specifications for the creativity behaviors of YOLO can be found here: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/CreativityProfile:
Contrast — This technique is used to stimulate divergent thinking rickards1975problem
. In the Contrast technique, YOLO provides stimuli unrelated to the storyline that children are exploring at the moment, producing an opportunity to explore new directions in the plot. This leads to heightened action and interesting plot twists in the stories of children.
Mirror — This technique is used to stimulate convergent thinking vangundy1988techniques . When using the Mirror technique, YOLO provides stimuli that are connected with the storyline that children are exploring, leading to the elaboration and convergence of story ideas. This leads to then emergence of interesting details about a character, a scenario, or an action in the story.
3.2 Storytelling arc
Successful and satisfying stories follow a storytelling arc freytag1872technik ; freytag1896freytag . According to the Theory of Dramatic Structure, each story has five acts: exposition, raising action, climax, falling action, and dénouement freytag1872technik ; freytag1896freytag . These five acts can be modified and adapted to the dramatic structure of short stories, fables, or fairy-tales. In our software, we considered a short-story format similar to what is used in children’s stories wright1995storytelling . Therefore, we divide the narrative of a story in the following phases:
Rising action — Characters are introduced, a context is given to the story, and the story builds. During this stage, YOLO stimulates convergent thinking by using the mirror creativity technique (see Section 3.1);
Climax — The story reaches the point of greatest tension. During this stage, YOLO stimulates divergent thinking by applying the contrast creativity technique (see Section 3.1);
Falling action — The story shifts to an action that happens because of the climax, which means that the conflict is resolved and the story reaches its end. During this stage, YOLO stimulates convergent thinking by using the mirror creativity technique (see Section 3.1).
3.3 Social behavior
YOLO expresses different social profiles to exhibit social behaviors. The profiles are named Exuberant, Aloof, and Harmonious§§§Parameterization specifications for all the social behaviors of YOLO can be found here: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/SocialProfile. These social behaviors appear as pre-sets when YOLO is turned on and can be used interchangeably, making the robot a flexible character in the children’s stories. The three different social modes for YOLO are explained below:
Exuberant — YOLO reacts to every social interaction in an “enthusiastic” manner. Movements are fast and have a high amplitude. It displays vibrant colors such as purple and red with high brightness levels. As Exuberant, YOLO is proactive and seeks out social interaction. This is a vibrant, frenetic, and daring social profile;
Aloof — YOLO is less “socially reactive” and is a “shy robot”. In this mode, the robot exhibits low amplitude, slow movements and displays cold colors such as green and blue with low brightness levels. As Aloof, YOLO is not proactive; does not seek interactions. This profile could also be described as loner, contemplative, or reclusive;
Harmonious — YOLO acts in a moderated fashion, presenting behaviors that are in-between the extreme versions of Exuberant and Aloof. As Harmonious, YOLO exhibits medium speed, movements with medium amplitude, and displays warm colors such as yellow and orange at medium brightness levels. This is a balanced and moderate profile.
4 Software functionalities
A primary function of this software is to serve as an Application Programming Interface (API) that enables any user the opportunity to design personalized behaviors for YOLO, consequently providing the possibility to generate new behaviors and interaction modes¶¶¶Guide for YOLO’s API: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/API-Documentation. The robot can receive information from the environment (input) and express different interactive behaviors towards (output). Table 1 lists pre-sets that were developed for YOLO to act as a social robot that can stimulate creativity in children.
Since each aspect of the robot is controllable and parameterizable, behaviors can be tweaked, created and mixed. To demonstrate the API functionality, we conducted testing sessions in which we asked two participants unfamiliar with YOLO software to create different behaviors for the robot. One of the participants had a background in Computer Science and the other in Psychology. The participants were instructed to choose beloved characters from animation movies and to create a behavior for the robot that would resemble the behavior of those characters. The examples created by the participants were Mickey, Barbie, Bugs Bunny, and Genie from Aladdin ∥∥∥Examples created by the participants using the API: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/Examples.
5 Software architecture
The architecture of our software includes several modules that manipulate data at different levels of abstraction from the low-level sensors and actuators to high-level behaviors. Figure 3 shows the scheme of these modules and how they interact. Each module is explained in the next sections.
This module has two main functions: first, it extracts data associated with the robots’ sensors and translates into a programmable format. Second, it instructs the actuators what to do based on the software calls.
The touch sensor of YOLO indicates the robot is recognizing physical contact, and the optical sensor observes the differences in position to detect the direction of movement. The sensors record movement at each moment. The shape recognizer dynamically identifies and characterizes each movement using Machine Learning (ML). The pre-trained K nearest neighbour (KNN) algorithm determines a shape using the robot motion sensors which capture coordinates in seconds intervals altman1992introduction . Figure 4 depicts the ML
workflow. We trained the model by collecting raw coordinates and converting these coordinates into a feature vector using the convex hull algorithmbarber1996quickhull ******More details about our shape recognizer algorithm are present at this link: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/Algorithm. Every time a movement is detected, KNN is used to determine the closest matching shape from the training data. Simulations with a computer mouse showed us that with n=, KNN provided high accuracy (94%). Therefore, we used this parameterization. The current ML model was trained with the physical robot and can recognize with an % success rate the following shapes: circle, rectangles, loops, curls, spikes, and a straight line (see Figure 5).
YOLO actuators include the Wheel Actuator and LED Actuator. While Wheel Actuator receives direction and speed values and moves the wheels’ motors accordingly, LED Actuator receives a color and brightness level and displays it in the robot’s jewel LEDs.
The Behaviors module coordinates the simultaneous execution of different actuators based on given parameters. The intended behavior arises from the simultaneous execution of different actuators. To simplify the development process, we divided behaviors into more concrete Simple Behaviors, which directly use the actuator data and Composed Behaviors, which unite several simple behaviors. Simple behaviors directly call the Control module. These behaviors consist of assigning different light behaviors (different colors, animations, and brightness) to different movement configurations (different movement patterns at varying speed)††††††Examples of simple behaviors are detailed at this link: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/SimpleBehavior-Hierarchy. Composed behaviors can be used to define the social behaviors which YOLO exhibits, such as Exuberant, Aloof, and Harmonious‡‡‡‡‡‡Composed behaviors are further explained at this link: https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki/ComposedBehavior.
The Planning module schedules the behaviors in each moment of the interaction, executing specific ones based on the current interaction state. In order to trigger new interaction states, Planning module uses the data extracted from the sensors which the Control module provides. A flowchart illustrating the Planning module’s is depicted in Figure 6.
6 Illustrative Example
To validate the effectiveness of our software, we have tested it with children in a storytelling activity. The instruction provided information that they should use the robot as a character for the story they created. In the box below, we transcribed part of an interaction case during a study session between a child and YOLO (see complementary Figure 7). In this example, it is visible how the robot makes use of its interaction profiles to stimulate convergent and divergent thinking and how this relates to the different stages of the storytelling.
The child is on the floor playing with YOLO.
Child: “This is a football field and YOLO is from the Benfica team, so we are going to win!”
The child manipulates YOLO in the imaginary football field, imitating the robot running after an imaginary ball and deviating from imaginary team adversaries. Because YOLO is still in the first part of the storytelling arc, i.e., in the Raising Action stage, the robot will stimulate convergent thinking abilities. Therefore, the robot imitates the last movement that the child performed. The child looks at the robot while it is moving.
Child: “Yes! Go for it, Cádiz, score! (Cádiz is the name of a Benfica team player that the child gave to the robot).
The child imitates scoring a goal and then grabs YOLO and celebrates.
Child: “Ok Cádiz, but we have to continue doing well. These other guys are good too.
The child continues manipulating YOLO through the adversaries. At this point in time, YOLO entered the next storytelling arc which is the Climax. During climax, divergent thinking is stimulated so the robot will perform a movement that is different from the last movement that the child has performed. The child manipulates the robot straight ahead towards the soccer goal but the robot goes the opposite direction.
Child: “What happened? Oh no, the other guys hit you in the knee. Assistance is needed here!”
The game continues.
7 Conclusions and Impact
As societies develop increasingly higher levels of sophistication, social robots can play a crucial role in the development of human creativity. Related research has indicated that social robots impact the play behaviors in children, pulling them towards traditional play formats such as physical, unstructured, and unrestrained play, benefiting multiple aspects of growth pellegrini1998physical .
In this article, we presented the software which allows the YOLO robot to encourage creativity stimulation. This software allows potential developers to create behaviors that make the robot act according to different social behaviors. We also described several tests applying our software in real-world scenarios. These tests revealed the potential of our program, as robots using our software provoke creative narratives in stories which the children created.
The impact of this software is broad. By being an easy-to-use tool, children’s stakeholders such as educators and parents, have access to a robot that is easy to prepare (e.g., for Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, and Mathematics (STEAM)-related activities), contrasting with other existing technological tools that can be cumbersome for non-experts to prepare chan2014personal . Additionally, this software serves as a solid platform in academic studies, where researchers can use YOLO’s API to study child-robot interaction.
Creativity stimulating robot: YOLO can stimulate children’s creativity during play;
Open-access: Access to the code and the guide to install and execute the software;
Scalability and personalization: API for developers to create new behaviors for YOLO;
Application: YOLO can be used by children’s stakeholders and by the research community.
This work was supported by national funds through Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT-UID/CEC/500 21/2013) and through AMIGOS project ref. PTDC/EEISII/7174/2014. P. Alves-Oliveira acknowledges a FCT grant ref. SFRH/BD/110223/2015. We thank André Pires for his contribution on the initial stage of software development.
Current code version
|Code metadata description||Please fill in this column|
|Current code version||v0.4|
|Permanent link to code/repository used for this code version||https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software|
|Legal Code License||CC Attribution 4.0 International|
|Code versioning system used||git|
|Software code languages, tools, and services used||Python|
|Compilation requirements, operating environments & dependencies||Raspbian Stretch Lite OS|
|If available Link to developer documentation/manual||https://github.com/patricialvesoliveira/YOLO-Software/wiki|
|Support email for questions||Samuel Gomes: firstname.lastname@example.org and Patrícia Alves-Oliveira: email@example.com|
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