Situation Awareness for Automated Surgical Check-listing in AI-Assisted Operating Room

by   Tochukwu Onyeogulu, et al.

Nowadays, there are more surgical procedures that are being performed using minimally invasive surgery (MIS). This is due to its many benefits, such as minimal post-operative problems, less bleeding, minor scarring, and a speedy recovery. However, the MIS's constrained field of view, small operating room, and indirect viewing of the operating scene could lead to surgical tools colliding and potentially harming human organs or tissues. Therefore, MIS problems can be considerably reduced, and surgical procedure accuracy and success rates can be increased by using an endoscopic video feed to detect and monitor surgical instruments in real-time. In this paper, a set of improvements made to the YOLOV5 object detector to enhance the detection of surgical instruments was investigated, analyzed, and evaluated. In doing this, we performed performance-based ablation studies, explored the impact of altering the YOLOv5 model's backbone, neck, and anchor structural elements, and annotated a unique endoscope dataset. Additionally, we compared the effectiveness of our ablation investigations with that of four additional SOTA object detectors (YOLOv7, YOLOR, Scaled-YOLOv4 and YOLOv3-SPP). Except for YOLOv3-SPP, which had the same model performance of 98.3 inference speed, all of our benchmark models, including the original YOLOv5, were surpassed by our top refined model in experiments using our fresh endoscope dataset.


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