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Single-Target Real-Time Passive WiFi Tracking

by   Zhongqin Wang, et al.

Device-free human tracking is an essential ingredient for ubiquitous wireless sensing. Recent passive WiFi tracking systems face the challenges of inaccurate separation of dynamic human components and time-consuming estimation of multi-dimensional signal parameters. In this work, we present a scheme named WiFi Doppler Frequency Shift (WiDFS), which can achieve single-target real-time passive tracking using channel state information (CSI) collected from commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) WiFi devices. We consider the typical system setup including a transmitter with a single antenna and a receiver with three antennas; while our scheme can be readily extended to another setup. To remove the impact of transceiver asynchronization, we first apply CSI cross-correlation between each RX antenna pair. We then combine them to estimate a Doppler frequency shift (DFS) in a short-time window. After that, we leverage the DFS estimate to separate dynamic human components from CSI self-correlation terms of each antenna, thereby separately calculating angle-of-arrival (AoA) and human reflection distance for tracking. In addition, a hardware calibration algorithm is presented to refine the spacing between RX antennas and eliminate the hardware-related phase differences between them. A prototype demonstrates that WiDFS can achieve real-time tracking with a median position error of 72.32 cm in multipath-rich environments.


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