Sequence-to-Sequence Learning for Indonesian Automatic Question Generator

by   Ferdiant Joshua Muis, et al.

Automatic question generation is defined as the task of automating the creation of question given a various of textual data. Research in automatic question generator (AQG) has been conducted for more than 10 years, mainly focused on factoid question. In all these studies, the state-of-the-art is attained using sequence-to-sequence approach. However, AQG system for Indonesian has not ever been researched intensely. In this work we construct an Indonesian automatic question generator, adapting the architecture from some previous works. In summary, we used sequence-to-sequence approach using BiGRU, BiLSTM, and Transformer with additional linguistic features, copy mechanism, and coverage mechanism. Since there is no public large dan popular Indonesian dataset for question generation, we translated SQuAD v2.0 factoid question answering dataset, with additional Indonesian TyDiQA dev set for testing. The system achieved BLEU1, BLEU2, BLEU3, BLEU4, and ROUGE-L score at 38,35, 20,96, 10,68, 5,78, and 43,4 for SQuAD, and 39.9, 20.78, 10.26, 6.31, 44.13 for TyDiQA, respectively. The system performed well when the expected answers are named entities and are syntactically close with the context explaining them. Additionally, from native Indonesian perspective, the best questions generated by our best models on their best cases are acceptable and reasonably useful.



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