Separating Rank Logic from Polynomial Time

04/27/2021 ∙ by Moritz Lichter, et al. ∙ 0

In the search for a logic capturing polynomial time the most promising candidates are Choiceless Polynomial Time (CPT) and rank logic. Rank logic extends fixed-point logic with counting by a rank operator over prime fields. We show that the isomorphism problem for CFI graphs over ℤ_2^i cannot be defined in rank logic, even if the base graph is totally ordered. However, CPT can define this isomorphism problem. We thereby separate rank logic from CPT and in particular from polynomial time.

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