Sensitivity Maps of the Hilbert-Schmidt Independence Criterion

by   Adrián Pérez-Suay, et al.

Kernel dependence measures yield accurate estimates of nonlinear relations between random variables, and they are also endorsed with solid theoretical properties and convergence rates. Besides, the empirical estimates are easy to compute in closed form just involving linear algebra operations. However, they are hampered by two important problems: the high computational cost involved, as two kernel matrices of the sample size have to be computed and stored, and the interpretability of the measure, which remains hidden behind the implicit feature map. We here address these two issues. We introduce the Sensitivity Maps (SMs) for the Hilbert-Schmidt independence criterion (HSIC). Sensitivity maps allow us to explicitly analyze and visualize the relative relevance of both examples and features on the dependence measure. We also present the randomized HSIC (RHSIC) and its corresponding sensitivity maps to cope with large scale problems. We build upon the framework of random features and the Bochner's theorem to approximate the involved kernels in the canonical HSIC. The power of the RHSIC measure scales favourably with the number of samples, and it approximates HSIC and the sensitivity maps efficiently. Convergence bounds of both the measure and the sensitivity map are also provided. Our proposal is illustrated in synthetic examples, and challenging real problems of dependence estimation, feature selection, and causal inference from empirical data.



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