Sensing Time Effectiveness for Fitness to Drive Evaluation in Neurological Patients

by   Nadica Miljković, et al.

We present a method to automatically calculate sensing time (ST) from the eye tracker data in subjects with neurological impairment using a driving simulator. ST presents the time interval for a person to notice the stimulus from its first occurrence. Precisely, we measured the time since the children started to cross the street until the drivers directed their look to the children. In comparison to the commonly used reaction time, ST does not require additional neuro-muscular responses such as braking and presents unique information on the sensory function. From 108 neurological patients recruited for the study, the analysis of ST was performed in overall 56 patients to assess fit-, unfit-, and conditionally-fit-to-drive patients. The results showed that the proposed method based on the YOLO (You Only Look Once) object detector is efficient for computing STs from the eye tracker data in neurological patients. We obtained discriminative results for fit-to-drive patients by application of Tukey's Honest Significant Difference post hoc test (p < 0.01), while no difference was observed between conditionally-fit and unfit-to-drive groups (p = 0.542). Moreover, we show that time-to-collision (TTC), initial gaze distance (IGD) from pedestrians, and speed at the hazard onset did not influence the result, while the only significant interaction is among fitness, IGD, and TTC on ST. Although the proposed method can be applied to assess fitness to drive, we provide directions for future driving simulation-based evaluation and propose processing workflow to secure reliable ST calculation in other domains such as psychology, neuroscience, marketing, etc.


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