Security and Privacy for Artificial Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges

by   Ayodeji Oseni, et al.

The increased adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) presents an opportunity to solve many socio-economic and environmental challenges; however, this cannot happen without securing AI-enabled technologies. In recent years, most AI models are vulnerable to advanced and sophisticated hacking techniques. This challenge has motivated concerted research efforts into adversarial AI, with the aim of developing robust machine and deep learning models that are resilient to different types of adversarial scenarios. In this paper, we present a holistic cyber security review that demonstrates adversarial attacks against AI applications, including aspects such as adversarial knowledge and capabilities, as well as existing methods for generating adversarial examples and existing cyber defence models. We explain mathematical AI models, especially new variants of reinforcement and federated learning, to demonstrate how attack vectors would exploit vulnerabilities of AI models. We also propose a systematic framework for demonstrating attack techniques against AI applications and reviewed several cyber defences that would protect AI applications against those attacks. We also highlight the importance of understanding the adversarial goals and their capabilities, especially the recent attacks against industry applications, to develop adaptive defences that assess to secure AI applications. Finally, we describe the main challenges and future research directions in the domain of security and privacy of AI technologies.


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