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Scalable Pseudorandom Quantum States

by   Zvika Brakerski, et al.
Weizmann Institute of Science
Tel Aviv University

Efficiently sampling a quantum state that is hard to distinguish from a truly random quantum state is an elementary task in quantum information theory that has both computational and physical uses. This is often referred to as pseudorandom (quantum) state generator, or PRS generator for short. In existing constructions of PRS generators, security scales with the number of qubits in the states, i.e. the (statistical) security parameter for an n-qubit PRS is roughly n. Perhaps counter-intuitively, n-qubit PRS are not known to imply k-qubit PRS even for k<n. Therefore the question of scalability for PRS was thus far open: is it possible to construct n-qubit PRS generators with security parameter λ for all n, λ. Indeed, we believe that PRS with tiny (even constant) n and large λ can be quite useful. We resolve the problem in this work, showing that any quantum-secure one-way function implies scalable PRS. We follow the paradigm of first showing a statistically secure construction when given oracle access to a random function, and then replacing the random function with a quantum-secure (classical) pseudorandom function to achieve computational security. However, our methods deviate significantly from prior works since scalable pseudorandom states require randomizing the amplitudes of the quantum state, and not just the phase as in all prior works. We show how to achieve this using Gaussian sampling.


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