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Representation Theoretic Patterns in Multi-Frequency Class Averaging for Three-Dimensional Cryo-Electron Microscopy

by   Tingran Gao, et al.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
The University of Chicago

We develop in this paper a novel intrinsic classification algorithm -- multi-frequency class averaging (MFCA) -- for clustering noisy projection images obtained from three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) by the similarity among their viewing directions. This new algorithm leverages multiple irreducible representations of the unitary group to introduce additional redundancy into the representation of the transport data, extending and outperforming the previous class averaging algorithm of Hadani and Singer [Foundations of Computational Mathematics, 11 (5), pp. 589--616 (2011)] that uses only a single representation. The formal algebraic model and representation theoretic patterns of the proposed MFCA algorithm extend the framework of Hadani and Singer to arbitrary irreducible representations of the unitary group. We conceptually establish the consistency and stability of MFCA by inspecting the spectral properties of a generalized localized parallel transport operator on the two-dimensional unit sphere through the lens of Wigner matrices. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm with numerical experiments.


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