Reinforcement Learning for Minimizing Age of Information in Real-time Internet of Things Systems with Realistic Physical Dynamics

04/04/2021 ∙ by Sihua Wang, et al. ∙ 0

In this paper, the problem of minimizing the weighted sum of age of information (AoI) and total energy consumption of Internet of Things (IoT) devices is studied. In the considered model, each IoT device monitors a physical process that follows nonlinear dynamics. As the dynamics of the physical process vary over time, each device must find an optimal sampling frequency to sample the real-time dynamics of the physical system and send sampled information to a base station (BS). Due to limited wireless resources, the BS can only select a subset of devices to transmit their sampled information. Meanwhile, changing the sampling frequency will also impact the energy used by each device for sampling and information transmission. Thus, it is necessary to jointly optimize the sampling policy of each device and the device selection scheme of the BS so as to accurately monitor the dynamics of the physical process using minimum energy. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem whose goal is to minimize the weighted sum of AoI cost and energy consumption. To solve this problem, a distributed reinforcement learning approach is proposed to optimize the sampling policy. The proposed learning method enables the IoT devices to find the optimal sampling policy using their local observations. Given the sampling policy, the device selection scheme can be optimized so as to minimize the weighted sum of AoI and energy consumption of all devices. Simulations with real data of PM 2.5 pollution show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the sum of AoI by up to 17.8 total energy consumption by up to 13.2 deep Q network method and a uniform sampling policy.

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