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Rapidly and accurately estimating brain strain and strain rate across head impact types with transfer learning and data fusion

by   Xianghao Zhan, et al.
Stanford University

Brain strain and strain rate are effective in predicting traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by head impacts. However, state-of-the-art finite element modeling (FEM) demands considerable computational time in the computation, limiting its application in real-time TBI risk monitoring. To accelerate, machine learning head models (MLHMs) were developed, and the model accuracy was found to decrease when the training/test datasets were from different head impacts types. However, the size of dataset for specific impact types may not be enough for model training. To address the computational cost of FEM, the limited strain rate prediction, and the generalizability of MLHMs to on-field datasets, we propose data fusion and transfer learning to develop a series of MLHMs to predict the maximum principal strain (MPS) and maximum principal strain rate (MPSR). We trained and tested the MLHMs on 13,623 head impacts from simulations, American football, mixed martial arts, car crash, and compared against the models trained on only simulations or only on-field impacts. The MLHMs developed with transfer learning are significantly more accurate in estimating MPS and MPSR than other models, with a mean absolute error (MAE) smaller than 0.03 in predicting MPS and smaller than 7 (1/s) in predicting MPSR on all impact datasets. The MLHMs can be applied to various head impact types for rapidly and accurately calculating brain strain and strain rate. Besides the clinical applications in real-time brain strain and strain rate monitoring, this model helps researchers estimate the brain strain and strain rate caused by head impacts more efficiently than FEM.


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