Sentiment analysis and emotion detection are essential tasks in human-computer interaction. Due to its broad practical applications, there has been rapid growth in the field of sentiment analysis Zhang et al. (2018). Although state-of-the-art sentiment analysis can detect the polarity of text units Hamilton et al. (2016); Socher et al. (2013), there has been limited work towards explaining the reasons for the expression of sentiment and emotions in texts Li and Hovy (2017). In our work, we aim to go beyond the detection of sentiment, toward explaining sentiments. Such explanations can range from detecting overtly expressed explanations or reasons for sentiments towards specific aspects of, e.g., products or films, as in user reviews to the explanation of the underlying reasons for emotional reactions of characters in a narrative story. The latter requires understanding of stories and modeling the mental state of characters. Recently, Ding and Riloff (2018) proposed to categorize affective events with categories based on human needs, to provide explanations of people’s attitudes towards such events. Given an expression such as I broke my leg, they categorize the reason for the expressed negative sentiment as being related to a need concerning ‘health’.
In this paper we focus on the Modelling Naive Psychology of Characters in Simple Commonsense Stories dataset of Rashkin et al. (2018), which contains annotations of a fully-specified chain of motivations and emotional reactions of characters for a collection of narrative stories. The stories are annotated with labels from multiple theories of psychology Reiss (2004); Maslow (1943); Plutchik (1980) to provide explanations for the emotional reactions of characters.
Similar to Ding and Riloff (2018), we hypothesize that emotional reactions (joy, trust, fear, etc.) of characters can be explained by (dis)satisfaction of their psychological needs. However, predicting categories of human needs that underlie the expression of sentiment is a difficult task for a computational model. It requires not only detecting surface patterns from the text, but also requires commonsense knowledge about how a given situation may or may not satisfy specific human needs of a character. Such knowledge can be diverse and complex, and will typically be implicit in the text. In contrast, human readers can make use of relevant information from the story and associate it with their knowledge about human interaction, desires and human needs, and thus will be able to infer underlying reasons for emotions indicated in the text. In this work, we propose a computational model that aims to categorize human needs of story characters by integrating commonsense knowledge from ConceptNet Speer and Havasi (2012). Our model aims to imitate human understanding of a story, by (i) learning to select relevant words from the text, (ii) extracting pieces of knowledge from the commonsense inventory and (iii) associating them with human need categories put forth by psychological theories. Our assumption is that by integrating commonsense knowledge in our model we will be able to overcome the lack of textual evidence in establishing relations between expressed emotions in specific situations and the inferable human needs of story characters. In order to provide such missing associations, we leverage the graph structure of the knowledge source. Since these connections can be diverse and complex, we develop a novel approach to extract and rank multi-hop relation paths from ConceptNet using graph-based methods.
Our contributions are: (i) We propose a novel approach to extract and rank multi-hop relation paths from a commonsense knowledge resource using graph-based features and algorithms. (ii) We present an end-to-end model enhanced with attention and a gated knowledge integration component to predict human needs in a given context. To the best of our knowledge, our model is the first to advance commonsense knowledge for this task. (iii) We conduct experiments that demonstrate the effectiveness of the extracted knowledge paths and show significant performance improvements over the prior state-of-the-art. (iv) Our model provides interpretability in two ways: by selecting relevant words from the input text and by choosing relevant knowledge paths from the imported knowledge. In both cases, the degree of relevance is indicated via an attention map. (v) A small-scale human evaluation demonstrates that the extracted multi-hop knowledge paths are indeed relevant. Our code is made publicly available.111https://github.com/debjitpaul/Multi-Hop-Knowledge-Paths-Human-Needs
2 Related Work
Sentiment Analysis and Beyond. Starting with Pang et al. (2002), sentiment analysis and emotion detection has grown to a wide research field. Researchers have investigated polarity classification, sentiment and emotion detection and classification Tang et al. (2015); Yin et al. (2017); Li et al. (2017) on various levels (tokens, phrases, sentences or documents), as well as structured prediction tasks such as the identification of holders and targets Deng and Wiebe (2015) or sentiment inference Choi et al. (2016). Our work goes beyond the analysis of overtly expressed sentiment and aims at identifying goals, desires or needs underlying the expression of sentiment. Li and Hovy (2017) argued that the goals of an opinion holder can be categorized by human needs. There has been work related to goals, desires, wish detection Goldberg et al. (2009); Rahimtoroghi et al. (2017). Most recently, Ding and Riloff (2018) propose to categorize affective events into physiological needs to explain people’s motivations and desires. Rashkin et al. (2018) published a dataset for tracking emotional reactions and motivations of characters in stories. In this work, we use this dataset to develop a knowledge-enhanced system that ‘explains’ sentiment in terms of human needs.
Integrating structured knowledge into neural NLU systems. Neural models aimed at solving NLU tasks have been shown to profit from the integration of knowledge, using different methods: Xu et al. (2017) show that injecting loosely structured knowledge with a recall-gate mechanism is beneficial for conversation modeling; Mihaylov and Frank (2018) and Weissenborn et al. (2017) propose integration of commonsense knowledge for reading comprehension: the former explicitly encode selected triples from ConceptNet using attention mechanisms, the latter enriches question and context embeddings by encoding triples as mapped statements extracted from ConceptNet. Concurrently to our work, Bauer et al. (2018)
proposed a heuristic method to extract multi-hop paths from ConceptNet for a reading comprehension task. They construct paths starting from concepts appearing in the question to concepts appearing in the context, aiming to emulate multi-hop reasoning.Tamilselvam et al. (2017) use ConceptNet relations for aspect-based sentiment analysis. Similar to our approach, Bordes et al. (2014) make use of knowledge bases to obtain longer paths connecting entities appearing in questions to answers in a QA task. They also provide a richer representation of answers by building subgraphs of entities appearing in answers. In contrast, our work aims to provide information about missing links between sentiment words in a text and underlying human needs by extracting relevant multi-hop paths from structured knowledge bases.
3 Selecting and Ranking Commonsense Knowledge to Predict Human Needs
Our task is to automatically predict human needs of story characters given a story context. In this task, following the setup of Rashkin et al. (2018), we explain
the probable reasons for the expression of emotions by predicting appropriate categories from two theories of psychology:Hierarchy of needs Maslow (1943) and basic motives Reiss (2002). The task is defined as a multi-label classification problem with five coarse-grained (Maslow) and 19 fine-grained (Reiss) categories, respectively (see Fig. 1).111Details about the labels are given in the Supplement. We start with a Bi-LSTM encoder with self-attention as a baseline model, to efficiently categorize human needs. We then show how to select and rank multi-hop commonsense knowledge paths from ConceptNet that connect textual expressions with human need categories. Finally, we extend our model with a gated knowledge integration mechanism to incorporate relevant multi-hop commonsense knowledge paths for predicting human needs. An overview of the model is given in Figure 2. We now describe each component in detail.
3.1 A Bi-LSTM Encoder with Attention to Predict Human Needs
Our Bi-LSTM encoder takes as input a sentence consisting of a sequence of tokens, denoted as , or and its preceding context , denoted as , or .
As further input we read the name of a story character, which is concatenated to the input sentence.
For this input the model is tasked to predict appropriate human need category labels , according to a predefined inventory.
Embedding layer: We embed each word from the sentence and the context with a contextualized word representation using character-based word representations (ELMo) Peters et al. (2018). The embedding of each word in the sentence and context is represented as and , respectively.
Encoding Layer: We use a single-layer Bi-LSTM Hochreiter and Schmidhuber (1997) to obtain sentence and context representations and , which we form by concatenating the final states of the forward and backward encoders.
A Self-Attention Layer allows the model to dynamically control how much each token contributes to the sentence and context representation. We use a modified version of self-attention proposed by Rei and Søgaard (2018), where both input representations are passed through a feedforward layer to generate scalar values for each word in context and sentence (cf. (2-5)).
where, are trainable parameters. We calculate the soft attention weights for both sentence and context:
is the output of the sigmoid function, thereforeis in the range [0,1] and is the normalized version of . Values are used as attention weights to obtain the final sentence and context representations and , respectively:
with and the number of tokens in and . The output of the self-attention layer is generated by concatenating and . We pass this representation through a FF layer of dimension :
are trainable parameters and ’;’ denotes concatenation of two vectors. Finally, we feed the output layer
to a logistic regression layer to predict a binary label for each class, where is the set of category labels for a particular psychological theory (Maslow/Reiss, Fig. 1).
3.2 Extracting Commonsense Knowledge
To improve the prediction capacity of our model, we aim to leverage external commonsense knowledge that connects expressions from the sentence and context to human need categories. For this purpose we extract multi-hop commonsense knowledge paths that connect words in the textual inputs with the offered human need categories, using as resource ConceptNet Speer and Havasi (2012), a large commonsense knowledge inventory. Identifying contextually relevant information from such a large knowledge base is a non-trivial task. We propose an effective two-step method to extract multi-hop knowledge paths that associate concepts from the text with human need categories: (i) collect all potentially relevant knowledge relations among concepts and human needs in a subgraph for each input sentence; (ii) rank, filter and select high-quality paths using graph-based local measures and graph centrality algorithms.
3.2.1 Construction of Sub-graphs
ConceptNet is a graph whose nodes are concepts and edges are relations between concepts (e.g. Causes, MotivatedBy).
For each sentence we induce a subgraph where comprises
all concepts that appear in and the
directly preceding sentence in context . also includes all concepts that correspond to one of the human need categories in our label set . Fig. 3 shows an example.
The sub-graph is constructed as follows:
Shortest paths: In a first step, we find all shortest paths from ConceptNet that connect any concept to any other concept and to each human needs concept . We further include in all the concepts which are contained in the above shortest paths .
Neighbours: To better represent the meaning of the concepts in , we further include in all concepts that are directly connected to any that is not already included in .
Sub-graph: We finally construct a connected sub-graph from by defining as the set of all ConceptNet edges that directly connect any pair of concepts .
Overall, we obtain a sub-graph that contains relations and concepts which are supposed to be useful to “explain” why and how strongly concepts that appear in the sentence and context are associated with any of the human needs .
3.2.2 Ranking and Selecting Multi-hop Paths
We could use all possible paths contained in the sub-graph , connecting concepts from the text and human needs concepts contained in , as additional evidence to predict suitable human need categories. But not all of them may be relevant. In order to select the most relevant paths, we propose a two-step method: (i) we score each vertex with a score (Vscore) that reflects its importance in the sub-graph and on the basis of the vertices’ Vscores we determine a path score Pscore, as shown in Figure 3; (ii) we select the top-k paths with respect to the computed path score (Pscore) .
(i) Vertex Scores and Path Scores: We hypothesize that the most useful commonsense relation paths should include vertices that are important with respect to the entire extracted subgraph. We measure the importance of a vertex using different local graph measures: the closeness centrality measure, page rank or personalized page rank.
Closeness Centrality (CC) Bavelas (1950) reflects how close a vertex is to all other vertices in the given graph. It measures the average length of the shortest paths between a given vertex and all other vertices in the given graph . In a connected graph, the closeness centrality of a vertex is computed as
where represents the number of vertices in the graph and represents the length of the shortest path between and . For each path we compute the normalized sum of Vscore of all vertices contained in the path, for any measure .
We rank the paths according to their Pscore, assuming that relevant paths will contain vertices that are close to the center of the sub-graph .
PageRank (PR) Brin and Page (1998) is a graph centrality algorithm that measures the relative importance of a vertex in a graph. The PageRank score of a vertex is computed as:
where is the number of neighbors of vertex , is a damping factor representing the probability of jumping from a given vertex to another random vertex in the graph and represents the number of vertices in . We calculate Pscore using Eq. 11 and order the paths according to their Pscore, assuming that relevant paths will contain vertices with high relevance, as reflected by a high number of incoming edges.
Personalized PageRank (PPR) Haveliwala (2002) is used to determine the importance of a vertex with respect to a certain topic (set of vertices). Instead of assigning equal probability for a random jump , PPR assigns stronger probability to certain vertices to prefer topical vertices. The PPR score of a vertex is computed as:
where if nodes belongs to topic and otherwise . In our setting, will contain concepts from the text and human needs, to assign them higher probabilities. We calculate Pscore using Eq. 11 and order the paths according to their scores, assuming that relevant paths should contain vertices holding importance with respect to vertices representing concepts from the text and human needs.
(ii) Path Selection: We rank knowledge paths based on their Pscore using the above relevance measures, and construct ranked lists of paths of two types: (i) paths connecting a human needs concept to a concept mentioned in the text () 222 denotes path connecting a human needs concept and a concept mentioned in the text. and (ii) paths connecting concepts in the text () 333 denotes path connecting a concept and another concept mentioned in the text.. Ranked lists of paths are constructed individually for concepts that constitute the start or endpoint of a path: a human needs concept for or any concept from the text for .
Figure 3 illustrates an example where the character Stewart felt joy after winning a gold medal. The annotated human need label is status. We show the paths selected by our algorithm that connect concepts from the text and the human need status. We select the top- paths of type for each human need to capture relevant knowledge about human needs in relation to concepts in the text. Similarly, we select the top- paths of type for each to capture relevant knowledge about the text (not shown in Fig. 3).
3.3 Extending the Model with Knowledge
We have seen how to obtain a ranked list of commonsense knowledge paths from a subgraph extracted from ConceptNet that connect concepts from the textual input and possible human needs categories that are the system’s classification targets. Our intuition is that the extracted commonsense knowledge paths will provide useful evidence for our model to link the content expressed in the text to appropriate human need categories. Paths that are selected by the model as a relevant connection between the input text and the labeled human needs concept can thus provide explanations for emotions or goals expressed in the text in view of a human needs category. We thus integrate these knowledge paths into our model, (i) to help the model making correct predictions and (ii) to provide explanations of emotions expressed in the text in view of different human needs categories. For each input, we represent the extracted ranked list of commonsense knowledge paths as a list , where each represents a path consisting of concepts and relations, with the length of the path. We embed all concepts and relations in with pretrained GloVe Pennington et al. (2014) embeddings.
Encoding Layer: We use a single-layer BiLSTM to obtain encodings () for each knowledge path
where represents the output of the BiLSTM for the knowledge path and its the ranking index.
Attention layer: We use an attention layer, where each encoded commonsense knowledge path interacts with the sentence representation to receive attention weights ():
In Eq. 15, we use sigmoid to calculate the attention weights, similar to Eq. 6. However, this time we compute attention to highlight which knowledge paths are important for a given input representation (
being the final state hidden representation over the input sentence, Eq. 7). To obtain the sentence-aware commonsense knowledge representation, we pass the output of the attention layer through a feedforward layer. , are trainable parameters.
3.4 Distilling knowledge into the model
In order to incorporate the selected and weighted knowledge into the model, we concatenate the sentence , context and knowledge representation and pass it through a FF layer.
We employ a gating mechanism to allow the model to selectively incorporate relevant information from commonsense knowledge and from the joint input representation (see Eq. 9) separately
. We finally pass it to a logistic regression classifier to predict a binary label for each classin the set of category labels
where represents element-wise multiplication, , are trainable parameters.
4 Experimental Setup
|Reiss without belonging class||5431||1469||5366|
Dataset: We evaluate our model on the Modeling Naive Psychology of Characters in Simple Commonsense Stories (MNPCSCS) dataset Rashkin et al. (2018). It contains narrative stories where each sentence is annotated with a character and a set of human need categories from two inventories: Maslow’s (with five coarse-grained) and Reiss’s (with 19 fine-grained) categories (Reiss’s labels are considered as sub-categories of Maslow’s). The data contains the original worker annotations. Following prior work we select the annotations that display the “majority label” i.e., categories voted on by workers. Since no training data is available, similar to prior work we use a portion of the devset as training data, by performing a random split, using 80% of the data to train the classifier, and 20% to tune parameters. Data statistics is reported in Table 1.
Rashkin et al. (2018) report that there is low annotator agreement i.a. between the belonging and the approval class. We also find high co-occurrence of the belonging, approval and social contact classes, where belonging and social contact both pertain to the Maslow class Love/belonging while approval belongs to the Maslow class Esteem. This indicates that belonging interacts with Love/belonging and Esteem in relation to social contact. We further observed during our study that in the Reiss dataset the number of instances annotated with the belonging class is very low (no. of instances in training is 24, and in dev 5). The performance for this class is thus severely hampered, with 4.7 score for BiLSTM+Self-Attention and 7.1 score for BiLSTM+Self-Attention+Knowledge. After establishing benchmark results with prior work (cf. Table 2, including belonging), we perform all further experiments with a reduced Reiss dataset, by eliminating the belonging class from all instances. This impacts the overall number of instances only slightly: by one instance for training and two instances for test, as shown in Table 1. Training: During training we minimize the weighted binary cross entropy loss,
where is the number of class labels in the classification tasks and is the weight. is the marginal class probability of a positive label for in the training set.
Embeddings: To compare our model with prior work we experiment with pretrained GloVe (100d) embeddings Pennington et al. (2014). Otherwise we used GloVe (300d) and pretrained ELMo embeddings Peters et al. (2018) to train our model.
Hyperparameters for knowledge inclusion: We compute ranked lists of knowledge paths of two types: and . We use the top-3 paths for each using our best ranking strategy (Closeness Centrality + Personalized PageRank) in our best system results (Tables 2, 3, 5), and also considered paths (top-3 per pair) when evaluating different path selection strategies (Table 4).
Evaluation Metrics: We predict a binary label for each class using a binary classifier so the prediction of each label is conditionally independent of the other classes given a context representation of the sentence. In all prediction tasks we report the micro-averaged Precision (P), Recall (R) and scores by counting the number of positive instances across all of the categories. All reported results are averaged over five runs. More information on the dataset, metrics and all other training details are given in the Supplement.
Our experiment results are summarized in Table 2
. We benchmark our baseline BiLSTM+Self-Attention model (BM, BM w/ knowledge) against the models proposed inRashkin et al. (2018): a BiLSTM and a CNN model, and models based on the recurrent entity network (REN) (Henaff et al., 2016) and neural process networks (NPN) (Bosselut et al., 2017). The latter differ from the basic encoding models (BiLSTM, CNN) and our own models by explicitly modeling entities. We find that our baseline model BM outperforms all prior work, achieving new state-of-the-art results. For Maslow we show improvement of 21.02 pp. score. For BM+K this yields a boost of 6.39 and 3.15 pp. score for Reiss and Maslow, respectively. When using ELMo with BM we see an improvement in recall. However, adding knowledge on top improves the precision by 2.24 and 4.04 pp. for Reiss and Maslow. In all cases, injecting knowledge improves the model’s precision and score.
|BM + K||G||28.47||39.13||32.96||50.54||64.54||56.69|
|BM + K||ELMo||31.74||43.51||36.70||57.90||66.07||61.72|
|BM + K||ELMo||36.76||42.53||39.44|
Table 2 (bottom) presents results for the reduced dataset, after eliminating Reiss’ label belonging. Since belonging is a rare class, we observe further improvements. We see the same trend: adding knowledge improves the precision of the model.
5.1 Model Ablations
To obtain better insight into the contributions of individual components of our models, we perform an ablation study (Table 3). Here and in all later experiments we use richer (300d) GloVe embeddings and the dataset w/o belonging. We show results including and not including self-attention and knowledge components. We find that using self-attention over sentences and contexts is highly effective, which indicates that learning how much each token contributes helps the model to improve performance. We observe that integrating knowledge improves the overall score and yields a gain in precision with ELMo. Further, integrating knowledge using the gating mechanism we see a considerable increase of 3.58 and 1.74 pp. score improvement over our baseline model for GloVe and ELMo representations respectively.
|Single Hop()||CC + PPR||33.00||44.63||37.94|
|S+M( + )||CC + PPR||35.30||44.11||39.21|
|S+M()||CC + PPR||36.76||42.53||39.44|
5.2 Commonsense path selection
We further examine model performance for (i) different variants of selecting commonsense knowledge, including (ii) the effectiveness of the relevance ranking strategies discussed in §3.2.2. In Table 4, rows 3-4 use our best ranking method: CC+PPR; rows 5-8 show results when using the top-3 ranked paths for each human need with different ranking measures. None shows results when no selection is applied to the set of extracted knowledge paths (i.e., using all possible paths from and ). Random randomly selects 3 paths for each human need from the set of paths used in None. This yields only a slight drop in performance. This suggests that not every path is relevant. We evaluate the performance when only considering single-hop paths (now top-3 ranked using CC+PPR) (Single-Hop). We see an improvement over random paths and no selection, but not important enough. In contrast, using both single and multi-hop paths in conjunction with relevance ranking improves the performance considerably (rows 4-8). This demonstrates that multi-hop paths are informative. We also experimented with +. We find improvement in recall, however the overall performance decreases by 0.2 score compared to paths ranked using CC + PPR. Among different ranking measures precision for Personalized PageRank performs best in comparison with CC and PR in isolation, and recall for CC in isolation is highest. Combining CC and PPR yields the best results among the different ranking strategies (rows 5-8).
6.1 Performance per human need categories
We examined the model performance on each category (cf. Figure 4). The model performs well for basic needs like food, safety, health, romance, etc. We note that inclusion of knowledge improves the performance for most classes (only 5 classes do not profit from knowledge compared to only using ELMo), especially for labels which are rare like honor, idealism, power. We also found that the annotated labels can be subjective. For instance, Tom lost his job is annotated with order while our model predicts savings, which we consider to be correct. Similar to Rashkin et al. (2018) we observe that preceding context helps the model to better predict the characters’ needs, e.g., Context: Erica’s [..] class had a reading challenge [..]. If she was able to read 50 books [..] she won a pizza party!; Sentence: She read a book every day for the entire semester is annotated with competition. Without context the predicted label is curiosity, however when including context, the model predicts competition, curiosity. We measure the model’s performance when applying it only to the first sentence of each story (i.e., without the context). As shown in Table 5, also in this setting the inclusion of knowledge improves the performance.
6.2 Human evaluation of extracted paths
We conduct human evaluation to test the effectiveness and relevance of the extracted commonsense knowledge paths. We randomly selected 50 sentence-context pairs with their gold labels from the devset and extracted knowledge paths that contain the gold label (using CC+PPR for ranking). We asked three expert evaluators to decide whether the paths are relevant to provide information about the missing links between the concepts in the sentence and the human need (gold label). The inter-annotator agreement had a Fleiss’ = 0.76. The result for this evaluation shows that in 34% of the cases computed on the basis of majority agreement, our algorithm was able to select a relevant commonsense path. More details about the human evaluation are given in the Supplement.
Finally we study the learned attention distributions of the interactions between sentence representation and knowledge paths, in order to interpret how knowledge is employed to make predictions. Visualization of the attention maps gives evidence of the ability of the model to capture relevant knowledge that connects human needs to the input text. The model provides interpretability in two ways: by selecting tokens from the input text using Eq.6 and by choosing knowledge paths from the imported knowledge using Eq.15 as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5 shows an example where including knowledge paths helped the model to predict the correct human need category. The attention map depicts which exact paths are selected to make the prediction. In this example, the model correctly picks up the token “exhausting” from the input sentence and the knowledge path “exhausting is a fatigue causes desire rest”. We present more examples of extracted knowledge and its attention visualization in the Supplement.
We have introduced an effective new method to rank multi-hop relation paths from a commonsense knowledge resource using graph-based algorithms. Our end-to-end model incorporates multi-hop knowledge paths to predict human needs. Due to the attention mechanism we can analyze the knowledge paths that the model considers in prediction. This enhances transparency and interpretability of the model. We provide quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effectiveness of the extracted knowledge paths. We believe our relevance ranking strategy to select multi-hop knowledge paths can be beneficial for other NLU tasks. In future work, we will investigate structured and unstructured knowledge sources to find explanations for sentiments and emotions.
This work has been supported by the German Research Foundation as part of the Research Training Group “Adaptive Preparation of Information from Heterogeneous Sources” (AIPHES) under grant No. GRK 1994/1. We thank NVIDIA Corporation for donating GPUs used in this research. We thank Éva Mújdricza-Maydt, Esther van den Berg and Angel Daza for evaluating the paths, and Todor Mihaylov for his valuable feedback throughout this work.
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Appendix A Supplement Material
A detailed visualization of our model, described in Section 3 of the main paper is shown in Fig. 10.
a.1 Dataset Details
We train and test our model on the Modeling Naive Psychology of Characters in Simple Commonsense Stories dataset Rashkin et al. (2018). It contains narrative stories where each sentence is annotated with a character and a set of human need categories from two inventories: Maslow’s (with five coarse-grained) and Reiss’s (with 19 fine-grained) categories. Figure 6 portraits the labels in Reiss and Maslow and their relation. Figures 7 and 8 depict the data distribution for the training and dev set for Reiss and Maslow respectively. As in prior work we select the annotations that display the “majority label” i.e., categories voted on by workers. Since no training data is available, similar to prior work we use a portion of the devset as training data, by performing a random split, using 80% of the data to train the classifier, and 20% to tune parameters. We use ConceptNet version 5.6.0 to extract commonsense knowledge.
a.2 Training Details
In training, we minimize the weighted binary cross entropy loss to train our multi-label classifier with the Adam optimizer Kingma and Ba (2014) with an initial learning rate of 0.001, a dropout-rate of 0.5 (dropout is applied to the input of each LSTM layer) and batch size of 32. We use 300 dimensional word embeddings and a hidden size of 100 for all Dense Layer and k = 3 for the selection of top ranked paths. For Maslow labels, we use L2 regularization with , For Reiss labels, we use L2 regularization with .
a.3 Concept to Human Needs
We manually aligned the human need categories to concepts in ConceptNet. We used the name of the human needs to map them to identically named concepts from ConceptNet, except for 3 human needs classes, which are as follows (Table 6):
For Maslow’s labels we use the mapping for Reiss, as Maslow’s categories are a subset of the Reiss categories, as shown in Figure 6.
a.4 Human evaluation
We conduct human evaluation to test the effectiveness and relevance of the extracted commonsense knowledge paths. We randomly selected 50 sentence-context pairs with their gold labels from the dev set and extracted knowledge paths that contain the gold label (using CC+PPR for ranking). We asked three expert evaluators to decide whether the paths provide
information about the missing links between the concepts in the sentence and the human need (gold label).
We asked them to
assign scores according to the following definitions:
the path specifies perfectly relevant information to provide the missing link between the concepts in the sentence and the human need.
the path contains a sub-path that specifies relevant information to provide the missing links between the concepts in the sentence and the human need.
when the path is irrelevant but the starting and the ending nodes stand in a relation that is relevant to link the sentence and the expressed human need. (In this case, either the path selected by our algorithm is not relevant or there is no relevant path connecting the nodes given the context.)
the path is completely irrelevant.
Figure 9 depicts the distribution of assigned scores (based on the majority class). It shows that in 34% of the cases our algorithm was able to select a relevant commonsense path. In another 24% of cases a sub-part of the selected path was still considered relevant.
a.5 Model Analysis and Visualization
We study the visualization of attention distributions produced by our model. We provide examples for different scenarios. Here we show the results found by our best model i.e., BiLSTM+Self-Attention+Gated-Knowledge with CC+PPR as path selection method.