Quantum Transport Protocols for Distributed Quantum Computing

by   Yangming Zhao, et al.

Quantum computing holds a great promise and this work proposes to use new quantum data networks (QDNs) to connect multiple small quantum computers to form a cluster. Such a QDN differs from existing QKD networks in that the former must deliver data qubits reliably within itself. Two types of QDNs are studied, one using teleportation and the other using tell-and-go (TAG) to exchange quantum data. Two corresponding quantum transport protocols (QTPs), named Tele-QTP and TAG-QTP, are proposed to address many unique design challenges involved in reliable delivery of data qubits, and constraints imposed by quantum physics laws such as the no-cloning theorem, and limited availability of quantum memory. The proposed Tele-QTP and TAG-QTP are the first transport layer protocols for QDNs, complementing other works on the network protocol stack. Tele-QTP and TAG-QTP have novel mechanisms to support congestion-free and reliable delivery of streams of data qubits by managing the limited quantum memory at end hosts as well as intermediate nodes. Both analysis and extensive simulations show that the proposed QTPs can achieve a high throughput and fairness. This study also offers new insights into potential tradeoffs involved in using the two methods, teleportation and TAG, in two types of QDNs.



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