Quantum Internet- Applications, Functionalities, Enabling Technologies, Challenges, and Research Directions

01/12/2021 ∙ by Amoldeep Singh, et al. ∙ 0

The advanced notebooks, mobile phones, and internet applications in today's world that we use are all entrenched in classical communication bits of zeros and ones. Classical internet has laid its foundation originating from the amalgamation of mathematics and Claude Shannon's theory of information. But today's internet technology is a playground for eavesdroppers. This poses a serious challenge to various applications that relies on classical internet technology. This has motivated the researchers to switch to new technologies that are fundamentally more secure. Exploring the quantum effects, researchers paved the way into quantum networks that provide security, privacy and range of capabilities such as quantum computation, communication and metrology. The realization of quantum internet requires quantum communication between various remote nodes through quantum channels guarded by quantum cryptographic protocols. Such networks rely upon quantum bits (qubits) that can simultaneously take the value of zeros and ones. Due to extraordinary properties of qubits such as entanglement, teleportation and superposition, it gives an edge to quantum networks over traditional networks in many ways. But at the same time transmitting qubits over long distances is a formidable task and extensive research is going on quantum teleportation over such distances, which will become a breakthrough in physically realizing quantum internet in near future. In this paper, quantum internet functionalities, technologies, applications and open challenges have been extensively surveyed to help readers gain a basic understanding of infrastructure required for the development of global quantum internet.

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