Quantum Advantage with Shallow Circuits under Arbitrary Corruption

by   Atsuya Hasegawa, et al.

Recent works by Bravyi, Gosset and König (Science 2018), Bene Watts et al. (STOC 2019), Coudron, Stark and Vidick (QIP 2019) and Le Gall (CCC 2019) have shown unconditional separations between the computational powers of shallow (i.e., small-depth) quantum and classical circuits: quantum circuits can solve in constant depth computational problems that require logarithmic depth to solve with classical circuits. Using quantum error correction, Bravyi, Gosset, König and Tomamichel (Nature Physics 2020) further proved that a similar separation still persists even if quantum circuits are subject to local stochastic noise. We prove that this quantum advantage persists even if the quantum circuits can be subject to arbitrary corruption: in this paper we assume that any constant fraction of the qubits (for instance, huge blocks of qubits) may be arbitrarily corrupted at the end of the computation. We show that even in this model, quantum circuits can still solve in constant depth computational problems that require logarithmic depth to solve with bounded fan-in classical circuits. This gives another compelling evidence of the computational power of quantum shallow circuits. In order to show our result, we consider the Graph State Sampling problem (which was also used in prior works) on expander graphs. We exploit the "robustness" of expander graphs against vertex corruption to show that a subproblem hard for small-depth classical circuits can still be extracted from the output of the corrupted quantum circuit.


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