Quantized Phase-Shift Design of Active IRS for Integrated Sensing and Communications

by   Zahra Esmaeilbeig, et al.

Integrated sensing and communications (ISAC) is a spectrum-sharing paradigm that allows different users to jointly utilize and access the crowded electromagnetic spectrum. In this context, intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) have lately emerged as an enabler for non-line-of-sight (NLoS) ISAC. Prior IRS-aided ISAC studies assume passive surfaces and rely on the continuous-valued phase shift model. In practice, the phase-shifts are quantized. Moreover, recent research has shown substantial performance benefits with active IRS. In this paper, we include these characteristics in our IRS-aided ISAC model to maximize the receive radar and communications signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) subjected to a unimodular IRS phase-shift vector and power budget. The resulting optimization is a highly non-convex unimodular quartic optimization problem. We tackle this via a bi-quadratic transformation to split the problem into two quadratic sub-problems that are solved using the power iteration method. The proposed approach employs the M-ary unimodular sequence design via relaxed power method-like iteration (MaRLI) to design the quantized phase-shifts. As expected, numerical experiments demonstrate that our active IRS-ISAC system design with MaRLI converges to a higher value of SNR when we increase the number of IRS quantization bits.


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