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Quantifying Predictive Uncertainty in Medical Image Analysis with Deep Kernel Learning

by   Zhiliang Wu, et al.

Deep neural networks are increasingly being used for the analysis of medical images. However, most works neglect the uncertainty in the model's prediction. We propose an uncertainty-aware deep kernel learning model which permits the estimation of the uncertainty in the prediction by a pipeline of a Convolutional Neural Network and a sparse Gaussian Process. Furthermore, we adapt different pre-training methods to investigate their impacts on the proposed model. We apply our approach to Bone Age Prediction and Lesion Localization. In most cases, the proposed model shows better performance compared to common architectures. More importantly, our model expresses systematically higher confidence in more accurate predictions and less confidence in less accurate ones. Our model can also be used to detect challenging and controversial test samples. Compared to related methods such as Monte-Carlo Dropout, our approach derives the uncertainty information in a purely analytical fashion and is thus computationally more efficient.


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