Proper conflict-free and unique-maximum colorings of planar graphs with respect to neighborhoods

by   Igor Fabrici, et al.

A conflict-free coloring of a graph with respect to open (resp., closed) neighborhood is a coloring of vertices such that for every vertex there is a color appearing exactly once in its open (resp., closed) neighborhood. Similarly, a unique-maximum coloring of a graph with respect to open (resp., closed) neighborhood is a coloring of vertices such that for every vertex the maximum color appearing in its open (resp., closed) neighborhood appears exactly once. There is a vast amount of literature on both notions where the colorings need not be proper, i.e., adjacent vertices are allowed to have the same color. In this paper, we initiate a study of both colorings in the proper settings with the focus given mainly to planar graphs. We establish upper bounds for the number of colors in the class of planar graphs for all considered colorings and provide constructions of planar graphs attaining relatively high values of the corresponding chromatic numbers. As a main result, we prove that every planar graph admits a proper unique-maximum coloring with respect to open neighborhood with at most 10 colors, and give examples of planar graphs needing at least 6 colors for such a coloring. We also establish tight upper bounds for outerplanar graphs. Finally, we provide several new bounds also for the improper setting of considered colorings.


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