Post-Quantum Multi-Party Computation in Constant Rounds

05/23/2020 ∙ by Amit Agarwal, et al. ∙ 0

We obtain the first constant-round post-quantum multi-party computation protocol for general classical functionalities in the plain model, with security against malicious corruptions. We assume mildly super-polynomial quantum hardness of learning with errors (LWE), and quantum polynomial hardness of an LWE-based circular security assumption. Along the way, we also construct the following protocols that may be of independent interest. (1) Constant-round zero-knowledge against parallel quantum verifiers from quantum polynomial assumptions. Here, we develop a novel parallel no-cloning non-black-box simulation technique. This uses as a starting point the recently introduced no-cloning technique of Bitansky and Shmueli (STOC 2020) and Ananth and La Placa (ePrint 2019), which in turns builds on the classical non-black-box technique of Bitansky, Khurana and Paneth (STOC 2019). Our approach relies on a new technical tool, spooky encryption for relations computable by quantum circuits, that we also construct. (2) Constant-round post-quantum non-malleable commitments from mildly super-polynomial quantum hardness of LWE. This is the first construction of post-quantum non-malleable commitments in the plain model, and is obtained by transforming the construction of Khurana and Sahai (FOCS 2017) to obtain post-quantum security. We achieve quantum security by building a new straight-line non-black-box simulator against parallel verifiers that does not clone the adversary's state. This technique may also be relevant to the classical setting.

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