Plant Species Recognition with Optimized 3D Polynomial Neural Networks and Variably Overlapping Time-Coherent Sliding Window

by   Habib Ben Abdallah, et al.

Recently, the EAGL-I system was developed to rapidly create massive labeled datasets of plants intended to be commonly used by farmers and researchers to create AI-driven solutions in agriculture. As a result, a publicly available plant species recognition dataset composed of 40,000 images with different sizes consisting of 8 plant species was created with the system in order to demonstrate its capabilities. This paper proposes a novel method, called Variably Overlapping Time-Coherent Sliding Window (VOTCSW), that transforms a dataset composed of images with variable size to a 3D representation with fixed size that is suitable for convolutional neural networks, and demonstrates that this representation is more informative than resizing the images of the dataset to a given size. We theoretically formalized the use cases of the method as well as its inherent properties and we proved that it has an oversampling and a regularization effect on the data. By combining the VOTCSW method with the 3D extension of a recently proposed machine learning model called 1-Dimensional Polynomial Neural Networks, we were able to create a model that achieved a state-of-the-art accuracy of 99.9 surpassing well-known architectures such as ResNet and Inception. In addition, we created a heuristic algorithm that enables the degree reduction of any pre-trained N-Dimensional Polynomial Neural Network and which compresses it without altering its performance, thus making the model faster and lighter. Furthermore, we established that the currently available dataset could not be used for machine learning in its present form, due to a substantial class imbalance between the training set and the test set. Hence, we created a specific preprocessing and a model development framework that enabled us to improve the accuracy from 49.23


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