Perron-Frobenius Theory in Nearly Linear Time: Positive Eigenvectors, M-matrices, Graph Kernels, and Other Applications

by   AmirMahdi Ahmadinejad, et al.

In this paper we provide nearly linear time algorithms for several problems closely associated with the classic Perron-Frobenius theorem, including computing Perron vectors, i.e. entrywise non-negative eigenvectors of non-negative matrices, and solving linear systems in asymmetric M-matrices, a generalization of Laplacian systems. The running times of our algorithms depend nearly linearly on the input size and polylogarithmically on the desired accuracy and problem condition number. Leveraging these results we also provide improved running times for a broader range of problems including computing random walk-based graph kernels, computing Katz centrality, and more. The running times of our algorithms improve upon previously known results which either depended polynomially on the condition number of the problem, required quadratic time, or only applied to special cases. We obtain these results by providing new iterative methods for reducing these problems to solving linear systems in Row-Column Diagonally Dominant (RCDD) matrices. Our methods are related to the classic shift-and-invert preconditioning technique for eigenvector computation and constitute the first alternative to the result in Cohen et al. (2016) for reducing stationary distribution computation and solving directed Laplacian systems to solving RCDD systems.


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