Perching on Moving Inclined Surfaces using Uncertainty Tolerant Planner and Thrust Regulation

by   Sensen Liu, et al.

Quadrotors with the ability to perch on moving inclined surfaces can save energy and extend their travel distance by leveraging ground vehicles. Achieving dynamic perching places high demands on the performance of trajectory planning and terminal state accuracy in SE(3). However, in the perching process, uncertainties in target surface prediction, tracking control and external disturbances may cause trajectory planning failure or lead to unacceptable terminal errors. To address these challenges, we first propose a trajectory planner that considers adaptation to uncertainties in target prediction and tracking control. To facilitate this work, the reachable set of quadrotors' states is first analyzed. The states whose reachable sets possess the largest coverage probability for uncertainty targets, are defined as optimal waypoints. Subsequently, an approach to seek local optimal waypoints for static and moving uncertainty targets is proposed. A real-time trajectory planner based on optimized waypoints is developed accordingly. Secondly, thrust regulation is also implemented in the terminal attitude tracking stage to handle external disturbances. When a quadrotor's attitude is commanded to align with target surfaces, the thrust is optimized to minimize terminal errors. This makes the terminal position and velocity be controlled in closed-loop manner. Therefore, the resistance to disturbances and terminal accuracy is improved. Extensive simulation experiments demonstrate that our methods can improve the accuracy of terminal states under uncertainties. The success rate is approximately increased by 50% compared to the two-end planner without thrust regulation. Perching on the rear window of a car is also achieved using our proposed heterogeneous cooperation system outdoors. This validates the feasibility and practicality of our methods.


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