Parameterized Complexity of Deletion to Scattered Graph Classes

05/10/2021 ∙ by Ashwin Jacob, et al. ∙ 0

Graph-modification problems, where we add/delete a small number of vertices/edges to make the given graph to belong to a simpler graph class, is a well-studied optimization problem in all algorithmic paradigms including classical, approximation and parameterized complexity. Specifically, graph-deletion problems, where one needs to delete at most k vertices to place it in a given non-trivial hereditary (closed under induced subgraphs) graph class, captures several well-studied problems including Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set, Odd Cycle Transveral, Cluster Vertex Deletion, and Perfect Deletion. Investigation into these problems in parameterized complexity has given rise to powerful tools and techniques. While a precise characterization of the graph classes for which the problem is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) is elusive, it has long been known that if the graph class is characterized by a finite set of forbidden graphs, then the problem is FPT. In this paper, we initiate a study of a natural variation of the problem of deletion to scattered graph classes where we need to delete at most k vertices so that in the resulting graph, each connected component belongs to one of a constant number of graph classes. A simple hitting set based approach is no longer feasible even if each of the graph classes is characterized by finite forbidden sets. As our main result, we show that this problem is fixed-parameter tractable (FPT) when the deletion problem corresponding to each of the finite classes is known to be FPT and the properties that a graph belongs to each of the classes is expressible in CMSO logic. When each graph class has a finite forbidden set, we give a faster FPT algorithm using the well-known techniques of iterative compression and important separators.



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