Parallel Batch-Dynamic Graphs: Algorithms and Lower Bounds

by   David Durfee, et al.
Georgia Institute of Technology
Carnegie Mellon University
University of Illinois at Chicago

In this paper we study the problem of dynamically maintaining graph properties under batches of edge insertions and deletions in the massively parallel model of computation. In this setting, the graph is stored on a number of machines, each having space strongly sublinear with respect to the number of vertices, that is, n^ϵ for some constant 0 < ϵ < 1. Our goal is to handle batches of updates and queries where the data for each batch fits onto one machine in constant rounds of parallel computation, as well as to reduce the total communication between the machines. This objective corresponds to the gradual buildup of databases over time, while the goal of obtaining constant rounds of communication for problems in the static setting has been elusive for problems as simple as undirected graph connectivity. We give an algorithm for dynamic graph connectivity in this setting with constant communication rounds and communication cost almost linear in terms of the batch size. Our techniques combine a new graph contraction technique, an independent random sample extractor from correlated samples, as well as distributed data structures supporting parallel updates and queries in batches. We also illustrate the power of dynamic algorithms in the MPC model by showing that the batched version of the adaptive connectivity problem is P-complete in the centralized setting, but sub-linear sized batches can be handled in a constant number of rounds. Due to the wide applicability of our approaches, we believe it represents a practically-motivated workaround to the current difficulties in designing more efficient massively parallel static graph algorithms.


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