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Optimising Stochastic Routing for Taxi Fleets with Model Enhanced Reinforcement Learning

by   Shen Ren, et al.

The future of mobility-as-a-Service (Maas)should embrace an integrated system of ride-hailing, street-hailing and ride-sharing with optimised intelligent vehicle routing in response to a real-time, stochastic demand pattern. We aim to optimise routing policies for a large fleet of vehicles for street-hailing services, given a stochastic demand pattern in small to medium-sized road networks. A model-based dispatch algorithm, a high performance model-free reinforcement learning based algorithm and a novel hybrid algorithm combining the benefits of both the top-down approach and the model-free reinforcement learning have been proposed to route the vacant vehicles. We design our reinforcement learning based routing algorithm using proximal policy optimisation and combined intrinsic and extrinsic rewards to strike a balance between exploration and exploitation. Using a large-scale agent-based microscopic simulation platform to evaluate our proposed algorithms, our model-free reinforcement learning and hybrid algorithm show excellent performance on both artificial road network and community-based Singapore road network with empirical demands, and our hybrid algorithm can significantly accelerate the model-free learner in the process of learning.


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