Indoor scenes constitute an important environment for visual perception tasks ranging from low-level scene reconstruction to high-level scene understanding. However, indoor scene appearance is a complex function of multiple factors such as shape, material and lighting, and demonstrates complex phenomena like significant occlusions, large spatial variations in lighting and long range interactions between light sources and room geometries. Thus, reasoning about these underlying, entangled factors requires large-scale high-quality ground truth, which remains hard to acquire. While it is possible to capture ground truth geometry using a commercial 3D scanner, this process is expensive. Further, it is extremely challenging (if not nearly impossible) to accurately capture complex spatially-varying material and lighting of indoor scenes.
An alternative is to render large-scale synthetic datasets. Recent works show that deep networks trained on synthetic data can generalize to real scenarios, especially if the synthetic data is physically meaningful. However, large-scale synthetic datasets of indoor scenes with plausible configurations of scene geometry, materials and lighting are also non-trivial to create. Previous works achieve this by using artist-designed scene configurations and assets. This is expensive and brings up copyright issues, which makes it hard to share such data with the research community.
The goal of our work is to democratize indoor scene reconstruction research by making it easier to create high-quality, photorealistic datasets of complex indoor scenes. We present tools to do this from (potentially noisy) scans acquired using commodity sensors and by leveraging publicly available shape, material, and lighting assets, thus allowing anyone to create their own datasets. Unlike most other indoor scene datasets, we provide high-quality ground truth for spatially-varying materials and complex spatially-varying lighting (modeling both area and environment lights and full global illumination). Note that our goal is not to mimic the input images, rather to create ground truth geometry, material and lighting that leads to photorealistic synthetic images of indoor scenes. Figure 1 shows our overall framework for dataset creation and example images from the dataset.
We illustrate an instance of such dataset creation using existing repositories of 3D scans from ScanNet 15, reflectance 1 and illumination 19, 20. The resulting dataset contains 118343 HDR images with ground-truth per-pixel depth, normal, spatially-varying reflectance and spatially-varying lighting. Since all the above inputs are publicly available, our dataset will be publicly released. Our custom physically-based GPU renderer to synthesize photorealistic images will also be released.
To demonstrate the efficacy of the dataset, we train a state-of-the-art network that decomposes an input image into shape, material and lighting factors. We achieve results close to state-of-the-art on each task, enabling novel object insertion and editing applications (noting that previous works have relied on the artist-created SUNCG dataset42 which currently faces licensing issues). More importantly, our dataset is open source and can be significantly extended through future community efforts, for example, by adding more and better scans, shapes and materials. In supplementary material, we demonstrate generality by conducting a similar process on the SUN-RGBD dataset 41.
We believe that our effort will significantly accelerate research in multiple areas. “Inverse rendering” tasks are directly related, including single-view 16 and multi-view 49 depth prediction, intrinsic decomposition 28, 8, material classification 6 and lighting estimation 17, 18, 29. But other indoor reasoning tasks such as scene understanding and navigation will also benefit, where our dataset creation tools can naturally and easily augment existing ones such as House3D 47 and Minos 37 with greater photorealism and scene variations. Finally, learning disentangled representations is a problem of wider interest, where prior works largely consider images of simpler objects such as faces 26, 13. Indoor scenes constitute a harder challenge due to the complexity of underlying factors and their interactions, where we believe our dataset and tools will allow learning better disentangled representations.
2 Related Work
Indoor scene datasets.
The importance of indoor scene reconstruction and understanding tasks has lead to the creation of a number of indoor scene datasets. These includes both real captured datasets 35, 15, 10, 48, 44 as well as synthetic scenes 33, 42, 27. While real captured datasets are by nature photorealistic, capturing and annotating such datasets is expensive; as a result, these datasets are smaller (ranging from tens to a few hundred scenes) and only capture some scene information (usually RGB images, geometry in the form of depth and semantic labels). However, we are interested in the problem of estimating scene geometry, reflectance and illumination; the latter two in particular, are extremely challenging to capture/annotate and absent in all real datasets.
This void can be addressed by synthetic datasets where ground truth material and lighting annotations can be automatically generated. However, most of these datasets do not offer the ability to render arbitrary ground truth data 27, or do not have real-world scene layout 33 or material appearance 42. To the best of our knowledge, the only existing dataset with complex materials and spatially-varying lighting annotations is from Li et al. 29, but this dataset is built on proprietary data 42 that is not publicly accessible. Our goal is to address this problem by creating photorealistic indoor scene datasets with meaningful scene layouts and real-world geometry, reflectance and illumination. Moreover, we propose a pipeline to build synthetic scenes from real world RGBD scans, thus allowing anyone to create such a dataset using off-the-shelf commodity hardware.
Building CAD models from real data.
Several recent methods can build CAD models for indoor scenes from a single image 22 or a scanned point cloud 2, 9, 12. Our dataset creation framework relies on 2 to locate furniture. However, our framework goes beyond replacing geometries and also automatically assigns real-world materials and lighting to create photorealistic synthetic scenes.
Inverse rendering for indoor scenes.
Indoor scene inverse rendering seeks to reconstruct geometry, reflectance and/or lighting from (in our case, monocular) RGB images. In particular, estimating geometry, in the form of scene depth or surface normals, has been widely studied 16, 3, 49, 32.
Most scene material estimation methods either recognize material classes 7 or only reconstruct diffuse albedo 28, 4, 25. Scaling these methods to real-world images requires scene datasets with complex physically-based materials. Li et al. 29 demonstrate this by training a physically-motivated network on a large-scale indoor scene dataset with ground-truth complex reflectance annotations. However, their dataset is built on top of proprietary data 43. In this work, we demonstrate that we achieve comparable inverse rendering performance from our using their method but trained on our dataset developed using publicly available assets.
, or rely on hand-crafted heuristics24, 25. More recently, deep network-based lighting estimation methods have shown great progress for estimating both global 17 and spatially-varying lighting 18, 40, 29 from single RGB images. The latter set of methods largely rely on proprietary synthetic data to generate spatially-varying lighting annotations. We demonstrate that we can achieve comparable performance by training on our dataset.
3 Building a Photorealistic Indoor Scene Dataset
In this section, we describe our framework for building a synthetic complex indoor scene dataset. We start from a large collection of 3D scans of indoor scenes, reconstruct the room layout, replace detected objects in the scans with CAD models, and finally assign complex materials and lighting to the scenes. We mainly demonstrate our pipeline on ScanNet, a large-scale repository of real indoor scans 15. However, our pipeline can be extended, using existing tools, to other datasets 4121 of 3D scans of indoor scenes, as demonstrated in the supplementary.
3.1 Creating CAD Models from 3D Scans
We demonstrate using ScanNet 15 to create a synthetic indoor scene dataset, which achieves a balance between the degree of automation and the generalization ability of deep networks trained on this dataset. ScanNet contains RGBD images for 1506 diverse scenes covering 707 distinct spaces. We can fuse the depth maps from different views of a scene to obtain a single point cloud.
Initial furniture placement.
Our first step is to locate and replace furniture in the scans with a CAD model. Previously, Scan2cad 2 has provided the ground-truth poses that aligned CAD models from ShapeNet 11 to the ScanNet point clouds. Therefore, we directly use their annotations. We do not require the appearance of the CAD models to be a close match to the ScanNet images, but focus on generating layouts and shapes with plausible appearances with as much automation as possible.
Reconstructing the room layout.
that aim at this problem. However, probably due to the significantly lower quality of point clouds in casually acquired sequences, directly applying these methods to ScanNet point clouds leads to artifacts such as hallucinating non-existent walls or splitting a single room into multiple ones. To mitigate this, we design a UI for quick layout annotation, which allows us to labeling the whole dataset efficiently in 1-2 days. The user interface is shown in Figure3 (Middle). In this tool, we first project the 3D point clouds to the floor plane and obtain the contour for the walls by manually selecting a polygon. While this step is manual, it is fast and does not require artistic effort. The tool will be open sourced.
Moreover, we train the network from prior work 12 on our annotations for automatic layout estimation. This leads to significantly better layout estimation for noisy point clouds. Our trained network can be extended to other real 3D scans 4121. More results are included in the supplementary. After locating the walls, we find the floor by using RANSAC to fit the lowest horizontal plane and find the ceiling by simply setting the height of the rooms to be 3 meters.
Windows and doors.
Windows and doors are important sources of illumination in indoor scenes. Thus, special consideration is needed to localize them in our dataset creation process. We utilize the segmentation provided by ScanNet to locate them. We first project the 3D points labeled as doors and windows to the closest wall and then divide the wall into a set of segments with equal length. Let and be the number of window points and door points in . A wall segment will be labeled as a door or window if
where and are thresholds. To determine the number and range of doors and windows, we find the connected components of wall segments and each connected component becomes one door (window) instance. After locating the windows and doors, we randomly pick one CAD model from each of these categories in ShapeNet 11 and assign it to the scene.
Consistency of room layout and furniture poses.
In the initial room layouts and furniture poses, the furniture can intersect with walls and floors, or float above the floor. We solve these conflicts by computing the distance between the bounding boxes of furniture and walls or floors and move the furniture accordingly. Let , be the directional distance between the bounding box of the furniture item to the wall and floor, where suggests that the object is inside the room. Let and be the normal of the wall and floor planes, pointing into the room. The translations and to solve the conflicts with walls and floors are defined as
If the furniture being moved supports another furniture, we move the supported furniture recursively until every furniture finds its support.
3.2 Assigning Complex Materials to Indoor Scenes
One of the major contributions of our dataset is to provide ground-truth annotation of complex material parameters for indoor scenes. Previous work typically provides material annotations in the form of simple diffuse or Phong reflectance 42, 39. While recent works like 29 use physically accurate microfacet SVBRDFs, they rely on proprietary artist-created assets from 42. We instead use 1331 spatially varying complex materials from Adobe Stock assets 1, defined by a parametric microfacet BRDF model 46.
Assigning materials to ShapeNet.
Many ShapeNet CAD models do not have texture coordinates; we use cube mapping 14 to compute texture coordinates for these models automatically.
To assign materials to models, we propose to split CAD models into semantically meaningful parts and assign different materials to different parts. This is inspired by 36, who use a similar strategy to map complex materials to chair models. However, they use the initial part segmentation provided by ShapeNet, which we find to be usually noisy and not semantically meaningful. Thus, we use the segmentation from PartNet 34, which provides high-quality semantically meaningful part segmentation of 24 categories of ShapeNet models.
Material annotation UI.
After obtaining the part segmentation, we use a custom UI tool to manually assign material category annotations to each part, as shown in Figure 3 (Right). It has two functions. The first function is part combination, in which the annotators will be asked to choose the parts that they believe should share the same material and group them into a single part. This is necessary because many CAD models from PartNet have overly fine-grained segmentations.
The second function is to annotate each part with possible material categories. Similar to 31 and 29, we divide 1078 kinds of spatially-varying materials from the Adobe stock dataset into 9 categories based on their appearances.111Around 300 materials are not used because they are only relevant for outdoor scenes. The examples of material categories are shown in Figure 3 (Right). We ask annotators to label each part of the CAD model with one or multiple material categories. Figure 2 (Top) shows rendered examples of our material assignment results. Instead of attempting to match the appearance of input images, our random assignment simply respects broad material categories, which maintains a plausible appearance. The resulting images are not optimized for aesthetic quality; however, to enable training of inverse rendering networks that generalize to unseen real images, the resulting appearance diversity may in fact be beneficial. Our tools and the annotations will be released for future research.
Assigning materials to room layouts.
We find that not all the materials look plausible on large-scale room structures (walls, floors, ceilings); we choose a subset of materials for them.
3.3 Assigning Appropriate Lighting to Indoor Scenes
In order to achieve high-quality lighting estimation, we create our dataset using diverse and physically-based lighting models. We use 2 kinds of light sources: environment lighting coming from the windows, and area lighting. We use 414 high-resolution HDR panoramas of natural outdoor scenes, collected from 20 and 19. This set is 2 times larger than in previous work 29.
We also appropriately handle indoor lights. Scan2CAD does not include ceiling lights. Thus, we place a randomly chosen ceiling light model from PartNet in each room. Unlike previous synthetic datasets which randomly sample the spectrum (color) of the area lights 29, 51, 28, we follow the more physically plausible black-body model, where the spectrum of the light source is decided by its temperature. In our dataset, we randomly sample between 4000K and 8000K.
3.4 View Selection
ScanNet provides the camera pose of each RGBD image. However, the view distribution is biased towards views that are very close to the scene geometry and therefore can only cover a small region of the room, which achieves optimal coverage for scanning. On the contrary, we prefer views covering larger regions with more non-trivial geometry, matching typical human viewing conditions. To achieve this, we first randomly sample different views along the wall approximately facing the center of the room. For each view, we render its depth map and normal map. Let and be the depth and normal of pixel , be the gradient of the normal. We choose the view based on computing a score defined as
Views with higher scores are used to create the dataset. An example of our view selection results is shown in Figure 2 (bottom right). Details are included in the supplementary.
3.5 Rendering the Dataset with a Physically-based Renderer
In order to minimize the domain gap between synthetic and real data, it is necessary to use a physically-based renderer that models complex light transport, such as inter-reflections and soft shadows. Therefore, we render our dataset using a custom-built physically-based GPU renderer. We render HDR images, the ground-truth SVBRDFs and the geometry. To create ground-truth spatially varying lighting, we follow the same lighting representation as in 29. For every pixel, we find its corresponding 3D point on the object surface and render a environment map at that location. The typical time of rendering one image and one spatially varying lighting is between 1-2 minutes, which is one order faster than a typical CPU-based renderer. Our renderer will be open sourced. More details are included in the supplementary.
3.6 Dataset Statistics
We pick 1287 scenes from the 1506 ScanNet scenes to create our dataset. 219 scenes are discarded because their boundaries are not clear. We randomly sample 1178 scenes for training and 109 scenes for validation. For each scene, we choose 2 sets of views using our view selection method. For each set of views, we render the image with different material and lighting configurations, leading to three set of images as shown in Figure 2 (Bottom-left). We render 118343 HDR images at resolution, 108269 of them in the training set and 10074 of them in the validation set. We also render ground-truth spatially-varying lighting for all of them, at a grid of spatial locations, where the resolution of each lighting probe is . Both the number of HDR images and spatially varying lighting in our dataset are larger than 29, especially spatially-varying lighting.
4 Experimental Validation on Inverse Rendering Tasks
In this section, we verify the effectiveness of our dataset for inverse rendering tasks by testing networks trained on our dataset on various benchmarks.
To demonstrate the effectiveness of our dataset, we use a state-of-the-art network architecture for inverse rendering of indoor scenes, as proposed by 29, which achieves superior performances in capturing complex material reflectance and spatially varying lighting. Please refer to the supplementary material for more details.
|Barron13 4||Gardner17 17||Garon19 18||Li20 30||Ours|
4.1 Inverse Rendering on Real Datasets
In this section, we test the networks on various real data benchmarks. Both qualitative and quantitative comparisons show that networks trained on our synthetic dataset can generalize well to real data and can achieve performance comparable to the state-of-the-art non-public dataset.
We compare our intrinsic decomposition results with 3 previous approaches. The qualitative comparison is shown in Figure 5 while the quantitative comparison is shown in Table 2. Our method is comparable to prior state-of-the-arts. All of these previous methods are based on SUNCG and therefore can no longer be used due to severe licensing restrictions.
Depth and normal estimation.
We evaluate the normal and depth estimation on the NYU dataset. The quantitative evaluation is in Table 2. We perform slightly worse than Li et al.’s dataset, possibly because their SUNCG-based dataset has more diverse and complex geometry compared to our ShapeNet-based furnitures.
4.2 Insertion and Editing in Real Images
Photorealistic synthetic object insertion is a key application in augmented reality. It requires high-quality estimation of geometry, material and lighting. We tested our trained network on the datasets from 18, which contains the around 80 ground-truth spatially-varying light probes. Some results are shown in Figure 7. Our network outperforms those methods that cannot handle spatially-varying or high-frequency lighting well. It can even generate more consistent lighting color compared to 30, which is trained on a SUNCG-based dataset. That is probably because our dataset has more diverse outdoor lighting and handle the indoor lighting in a physically meaningful way. A quantitative user study summarized in Table 3 also suggests that network trained on our dataset performs better on object insertion.
We further illustrate material editing examples by replacing the material of a planar surface in Figure 8. We show that spatially-varying lighting effects and some amount of specularity in the synthetic material are handled quite well. The material editing results are comparable to ones obtained by 29, even though our dataset is created based only on noisy scans acquired with a commodity sensor.
5 Conclusion and Future Work
We have proposed methods that enable user-generated photorealistic datasets for complex indoor scenes. Previous synthetic datasets required large amounts of artistic effort to create, and have licensing issues preventing their open distribution. In contrast, our dataset is created without artist involvement, from existing public repositories of 3D scans, 3D shapes and materials.
We illustrate the process on over 1000 interior scenes from ScanNet, and proceed by matching CAD models to detected furniture, detecting room layout, assigning doors and windows, assigning complex spatially-varying materials from a database, and creating lighting through a combination of indoor area lights and outdoor environment lighting. The resulting dataset has 118343 HDR images with ground truth per-pixel depth, normal and material coefficients. We also provide spatially varying lighting for each image (a set of ground-truth HDR environment maps sampled at a dense set of locations in the scene). We demonstrate the efficacy of our dataset by training a state-of-the-art inverse rendering network on it, achieving performance comparable to the previous state-of-the-art training dataset (which is not publicly available). We further demonstrate augmented reality applications such as object insertion and material editing in complex indoor scenes.
Our dataset will be publicly released, along with all the tools for its creation, which will allow the rest of the community to extend the dataset or create new ones based on their own scans.
Appendix A Video
The video included with the supplementary material illustrates various steps of the proposed dataset creation framework and the side-by-side comparisons between our rendered results and the original ScanNet images. The comparisons further desmonsrate the high-qaulity of our rendered dataset.
Appendix B Synthetic Dataset Creation using SUNRGBD Data
To demonstrate that our framework can generalize to other datasets, we present our scene reconstruction results based on scanned indoor scenes from the SUNRGBD dataset. Unlike ScanNet 15, SUNRGBD only contains partial scans of the rooms with extremely incomplete and sparse point clouds. Moreover, unlike Scan2CAD 2
, SUNRGBD only has 3D bounding box annotations for furniture locations and lacks full poses. Thus, we design a method for furniture retrieval and pose estimation. We utilize the ground-truth bounding box annotation as an initialization. We first align the bounding box of the CAD models with the ground truth bounding boxes provided by the SUNRGBD dataset. Then we select the CAD model and adjust its pose by using grid search to minimize the Chamfer distance between the CAD model and the point cloud in the bounding box. In some cases, intersections may arise due to inaccurate bounding box annotations in the SUNRGBD dataset (unlike in the case of ScanNet), which we handle by simply manual adjustment of furniture positions to resolve conflicts. Then, we reconstruct the room layout and assign appropriate materials and lighting to the CAD models, as described in the main paper.
In Figure 9, we visualize the reconstruction results by rendering the created scenes from different viewpoints with different material assignments. While the rendered images may not have high aesthetic value, they present diverse appearances with plausible material and lighting assignments, with complex visual effects such as soft shadows and specularity being correctly handled. We posit that through future community efforts to produce more accurate scene layout and furniture pose annotation, our framework for high-quality synthetic dataset creation can be significantly enhanced.
Appendix C Further Comparisons and Results
This section includes: (a) more user study results for object insertion under spatially-varying lighting, (b) comparisons of normal estimation with prior works on real datasets, (c) comparisons for layout estimation, (d) ablation study for the network on our proposed dataset, (e) qualitative visualization of inverse rendering network outputs on synthetic and real data, when trained on a synthetic dataset created from ScanNet using the proposed dataset creation method.
|Barron13 4||Gardner17 17||Garon19 18||Li20 30||Ours|
User study on object insertion under SV-lighting.
We conducted a user study to quantitatively evaluate our object insertion performance on the real dataset of 18, consisting of 20 real images. Some qualitative and quantitative results have been included in Table 3 and Figure 7 in the main paper. We provide more comparisons in Table 4 and Figure 10 in the supplementary material.
In Table 4, we summarize comparisons for different methods against ground-truth lighting. Ideal performance for this task is 50%, which indicates that the predicted lighting and the ground-truth lighting are indistinguishable. The best two previous methods 30 (34.84%) and 18 (29.15%) are both trained on the SUNCG-related datasets and therefore can no longer be used. Again, our method (38.89%) outperforms both of them. In Figure 10, we show more qualitative comparison. The network trained on our dataset achieves realistic high frequency shading the consistent lighting color.
In conclusion, the dataset created by our framework enables high-quality object insertion with performance better than the methods built on previous datasets created from proprietary repositories. More importantly, our dataset is free to use and can be easily extended and enhanced by the community, using the dataset creation process and tools proposed by the paper.
Figure 11 shows qualitative comparisons with 38 and 51 on three real examples from 38. Since both methods are trained on SUNCG-related datasets, quantitative comparison with those methods on datasets other than NYU 35 is hard without the trained models. From Figure 11, we observe that even though 51 achieves the best accuracy on NYU dataset, it might overfit to that specific dataset and might not generalize well to images from other sources. On the contrary, both 38 and our network achieve less noisy normal predictions. Our network may sometimes over-smooth the normal, probably since our scenes are built from Scan2CAD annotations that usually contain only a small number of large items of furniture in each room. Therefore, there may be less geometric details in our synthetic dataset. This can probably be solved in the future by procedurally adding small objects to the rooms to increase the complexity of the dataset.
In order to reduce labeling effort, we experimented with automatic layout prediction using Floor-SP 12. It accepts a 2D top-down projection of the point cloud and its mean surface normal as inputs. In the subsequent steps, the room segmentation is predicted and room loops are formed. We omit the loop merging step since ScanNet scans generally contain a single room. We refer the reader to 12 for more details. Since the point cloud generated by RGB-D scans contain higher levels of noise compared to the training data used by the authors, we trained a randomly initialized model on a subset of ScanNet consisting of 1069 scenes with human-annotated layout as ground-truth.
The final layout is evaluated on 103 held-out scenes in terms of corner precision and recall, edge precision and recall, as well as intersection-over-union of the room segmentation. A corner prediction is deemed correct if its distance to the closest ground truth corner is within 10 pixels. An edge prediction is deemed valid if its two endpoints pass the criterion for corners and the edge belongs to the set of ground-truth edges.
Table 5 shows the comparison between the model trained on ScanNet and the pre-trained weights provided by the authors. Figure 12 shows a qualitative comparison. Note that the room segmentation performs moderately well despite the low precision and recall of the corners and edges. We believe that this is caused by the ambiguities during layout annotation. Since we require the walls to be arranged such that they form a closed loop, for the scans that do not cover the entire room, the human annotator would have to add false corners and edges that pass through open areas where the scan is incomplete, thereby affecting the evaluation of the corner and edge predictions. On the other hand, false corners and edges do not affect IoU since it measures the area covered by the room, rather than the occurrence of predictions.
|Trained on ScanNet||0.531||0.716||0.254||0.316||0.858|
Inverse rendering on testing set of proposed dataset.
Table 6 quantitatively evaluates the performance of the network trained and then tested on the proposed synthetic dataset created from ScanNet. We observe that both the cascade structure and bilateral solver can improve the accuracy of prediction of most intrinsic components. Figure 13 shows a few inverse rendering results on our synthetic testing set. From the figure, we observe that through iterative refinement, the cascade structure can effectively remove noise and recover high-frequency signals, especially for lighting and normal prediction. The bilateral solver also helps remove noise by enhancing the smoothness prior.
Further examples of inverse rendering on real images.
Figure 14 shows inverse rendering results on several real images. We observe that even though the network is trained on a synthetic dataset, it can generalize well to real data. For real data, the effectiveness of the cascade structure and bilateral solver is more apparent, probably due to noisier initial predictions on real data.
Appendix D Microfacet BRDF Model
We use the simplified microfacet BRDF model of 23. Let , , be the diffuse albedo, normal and roughness. Our BRDF model is defined as
where and are the view and light directions, while
is the half angle vector. Further,, and are the distribution, Fresnel and geometric terms, respectively, which are defined as
We set , following 23.
Appendix E Physically-Based GPU Renderer
We render our dataset efficiently using a physically-based GPU renderer. There is one design choice that improves the rendering speed while maintainss the rendering quality. When rendering the spatially-varying lighting, we not only uniformly sample the hemisphere, but also sample the light sources. The contributions of the two sampling methods can be combined together using the standard power rule in multiple importance sampling 45. This allows us to capture the radiance from small light sources in the scenes with far fewer samples. More formally, let be the ray direction, be the probability of sampling when sampling the light sources, be the probability of uniformly sampling the hemisphere and be an indicator function that is equal to when a light source is sampled and otherwise. Let be the radiance. Then, the contribution of sampling towards the corresponding pixel on the hemisphere can be written as:
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