One-class Recommendation Systems with the Hinge Pairwise Distance Loss and Orthogonal Representations

by   Ramin Raziperchikolaei, et al.

In one-class recommendation systems, the goal is to learn a model from a small set of interacted users and items and then identify the positively-related user-item pairs among a large number of pairs with unknown interactions. Most previous loss functions rely on dissimilar pairs of users and items, which are selected from the ones with unknown interactions, to obtain better prediction performance. This strategy introduces several challenges such as increasing training time and hurting the performance by picking "similar pairs with the unknown interactions" as dissimilar pairs. In this paper, the goal is to only use the similar set to train the models. We point out three trivial solutions that the models converge to when they are trained only on similar pairs: collapsed, partially collapsed, and shrinking solutions. We propose two terms that can be added to the objective functions in the literature to avoid these solutions. The first one is a hinge pairwise distance loss that avoids the shrinking and collapsed solutions by keeping the average pairwise distance of all the representations greater than a margin. The second one is an orthogonality term that minimizes the correlation between the dimensions of the representations and avoids the partially collapsed solution. We conduct experiments on a variety of tasks on public and real-world datasets. The results show that our approach using only similar pairs outperforms state-of-the-art methods using similar pairs and a large number of dissimilar pairs.


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