On Training and Evaluation of Neural Network Approaches for Model Predictive Control

05/08/2020 ∙ by Rebecka Winqvist, et al. ∙ 0

The contribution of this paper is a framework for training and evaluation of Model Predictive Control (MPC) implemented using constrained neural networks. Recent studies have proposed to use neural networks with differentiable convex optimization layers to implement model predictive controllers. The motivation is to replace real-time optimization in safety critical feedback control systems with learnt mappings in the form of neural networks with optimization layers. Such mappings take as the input the state vector and predict the control law as the output. The learning takes place using training data generated from off-line MPC simulations. However, a general framework for characterization of learning approaches in terms of both model validation and efficient training data generation is lacking in literature. In this paper, we take the first steps towards developing such a coherent framework. We discuss how the learning problem has similarities with system identification, in particular input design, model structure selection and model validation. We consider the study of neural network architectures in PyTorch with the explicit MPC constraints implemented as a differentiable optimization layer using CVXPY. We propose an efficient approach of generating MPC input samples subject to the MPC model constraints using a hit-and-run sampler. The corresponding true outputs are generated by solving the MPC offline using OSOP. We propose different metrics to validate the resulting approaches. Our study further aims to explore the advantages of incorporating domain knowledge into the network structure from a training and evaluation perspective. Different model structures are numerically tested using the proposed framework in order to obtain more insights in the properties of constrained neural networks based MPC.

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