On Theoretical and Numerical Aspect of Fractional Differential Equations with Purely Integral Conditions

02/03/2021 ∙ by Saadoune Brahimi, et al. ∙ Universiti Putra Malaysia 0

In this paper, we are interested in the study of a problem with fractional derivatives having boundary conditions of integral types. The problem represents a Caputo type advection-diffusion equation where the fractional order derivative with respect to time with 1<α <2. The method of the energy inequalities is used to prove the existence and the uniqueness of solutions of the problem. The finite difference method is also introduced to study the problem numerically in order to find an approximate solution of the considered problem. Some numerical examples are presented to show satisfactory results.



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1. Introduction

Fractional Partial Differential Equations (FPDE) are considered as generalizations of partial differential equations having an arbitrary order and play essential role in engineering, physics and applied mathematics. Due to the properties of Fractional Differential Equations

, the non-local relationships in space and time are used to model a complex phenomena, such as in electroanalytical chemistry, viscoelasticity , porous environment, fluid flow, thermodynamic , diffusion transport, rheology , electromagnetism, signal processing , electrical network and others . Several problems have been studied in modern physics and technology by using the partial differential equations (PDEs) where the nonlocal conditions were described by integrals, further these integral conditions are of great interest due to their applications in population dynamics, models of blood circulation, chemical engineering thermoelasticity . At the same time, the existence and uniqueness of the solutions for these type of problems have been studied by several researchers, see for example . Some results have been obtained by construction of variational formulation and depends on the choice of spaces along their norms, Lax-Milgram theorem, Poincaré theorem, fixed point theory. For the numerical studies of (EDPF) with classical boundary nonlocal conditions, we can cite the works of A. Alikhanov , Meerschaert , Shen and Liu and many others.

In this study, we are interested in a problem (FPDE) with boundary conditions of integrals type . For the theoretical study, we use the energy inequalities method to prove the existence and the uniqueness. However the numerical study is based on the finite difference method to obtain an approximate numerical solution of the proposed problem. We use a uniform discretization of space and time and the fractional operator in the Caputo sense having order is approximated by a scheme called , similarly the integer-order differential operators are also approximated by central and advanced numerical schemes. For the stability and convergence of obtained numerical scheme, the conditionally stable method is used and we prove the convergence. Numerical tests are carried out in order to illustrate satisfactory results from the point of view that the values of the approximate solution that is very close to the exact solution. In the process of numerical and graphical results we applied MATLAB software..

1.1. Notions and preleminaries

In this section we recall some early results that we need, such as, the definition of Caputo derivative to explain the problem that we shall study in this work: let denote the gamma function. For any positive non-integer value the caputo derivative defined as follows:

Definition 1.

Let us denote by the space of continuous fonctions with compact support in and its bilinear form is given by



For , we have and The bilinear form is considered as scalar product on when is not complete.

Definition 2.

We denote  by

the completion of for the scalar product defined by .The associated norm to the scalar product is given by

Lemma 3.

For all we obtain

Definition 4.

Let be a Banach space with the norm , and let u : be an abstract functions, by we denote the norm of the element at a fixed t.

We denote by the set of all measurable abstract functions from into such that

Lemma 5.

For all and arbitrary variables a,b we have the following inequality:

Definition 6.

The left Caputo derivative for can be expressed as

Definition 7.

The integral of order of the function  is defined by:

Lemma 8.

For all real we have the inequality

Lemma 9.

For all real we have the inequality

2. Statement of the problem

In the rectangular domain

we consider the fractional differential equation:


to the equation , we associate the initial conditions:


and the purely integrals conditions


where and are  known continuous functions.


1) for all , we assume that:


2) for all , we assume that:


3 The functions and satisfy the following compatibility conditions:


We transform a problem with nonhomegenous integral conditions to the equivalent problem with homogenous integral conditions, by introducing a new unknown function defined by




Now we study a new problem with homegenous integral conditions




Again we introduce new function defined by


therefore the problem can be given as follow


Thus, instead of seeking a solution of the problem , we establish the existence and uniqueness of solution of the problem and solution will simply be given by:


3. Inequality of energy and its consequences

The solution of the problem can be considered as a solution of the problem in operational form:

where is considered from to , where is a Banach space of functions , whose norm:


is finite, and is a Hilbert space consisting of all the elements whose norm is given by:


Now we let be the domain of  the opérator for the set of all functions such as that: and satisfies the integral conditions in problem Then,

Theorem 10.

Under assumptions -

, the condition satisfied then we have the estimate


where is a positive constant and independent of where .


Multiplying the fractional differential equation in the problem by and integrating it on we obtain


Integrating by parts of four integrals in the left side of , we get


Substituting in , we have


By the elementary inequalities in lemmas (8), (9) respectively and assumptions give


The estimate of the right side of gives:


So, by using the assumptions we find


Finally, we obtain a priori estimate




Corollary 11.

A strong solution of problem is unique if it exists, and depends continuously on

Corollary 12.

The range of the operator is closed in and

4. Existence of solutions

In thei section, we prove the uniqueness of solution, if there is a solution. However, we have not demonstrated it yet. To do it, we will just prove that is dense in

Theorem 13.

Let us suppose that the assumptions and integral conditions are filled, and for and for all , we have


then almost everywhere in


We can rewrite the equation as follows


Further, we express the function in terms of as follows :


Substituting by its representation in integrating by parts, and taking into account the conditions , we obtain:


on using under assumptions and conditions , we obtain

and this leads that

By lemmas ( and ( we obtain



and we obtain

So in wich gives in

Finite Difference Method

5.1. Discretization of the problem

Now, we consider a uniform subdivision of intervals and as follows

Then, denote by the approximate solution of at points , and the operator is defined by



From the Taylor devlopment of function at the point we have


Substituting in the operateur expressed in gives


The discretization of Caputo derivative fractional operator with defined by


Writing fractional differential equation in points , we find





In order to eliminate , we use initial condition , and we find



Substituting in we obtain


For , the relation gives


By conditions and trapezoid method we obtain,

For ,