# On the Expressiveness and Monitoring of Metric Temporal Logic

It is known that Metric Temporal Logic (MTL) is strictly less expressive than the Monadic First-Order Logic of Order and Metric (FO[<, +1]) when interpreted over timed words; this remains true even when the time domain is bounded a priori. In this work, we present an extension of MTL with the same expressive power as FO[<, +1] over bounded timed words (and also, trivially, over time-bounded signals). We then show that expressive completeness also holds in the general (time-unbounded) case if we allow the use of rational constants q ∈Q in formulas. This extended version of MTL therefore yields a definitive real-time analogue of Kamp's theorem. As an application, we propose a trace-length independent monitoring procedure for our extension of MTL, the first such procedure in a dense real-time setting.

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