# On Positivity and Minimality for Second-Order Holonomic Sequences

An infinite sequence ⟨u_n⟩_n∈ℕ of real numbers is holonomic (also known as P-recursive or P-finite) if it satisfies a linear recurrence relation with polynomial coefficients. Such a sequence is said to be positive if each u_n ≥ 0, and minimal if, given any other linearly independent sequence ⟨v_n⟩_n ∈ℕ satisfying the same recurrence relation, the ratio u_n/v_n converges to 0. In this paper, we focus on holonomic sequences satisfying a second-order recurrence g_3(n)u_n = g_2(n)u_n-1 + g_1(n)u_n-2, where each coefficient g_3, g_2,g_1 ∈ℚ[n] is a polynomial of degree at most 1. We establish two main results. First, we show that deciding positivity for such sequences reduces to deciding minimality. And second, we prove that deciding minimality is equivalent to determining whether certain numerical expressions (known as periods, exponential periods, and period-like integrals) are equal to zero. Periods and related expressions are classical objects of study in algebraic geometry and number theory, and several established conjectures (notably those of Kontsevich and Zagier) imply that they have a decidable equality problem, which in turn would entail decidability of Positivity and Minimality for a large class of second-order holonomic sequences.

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