On Overcoming the Impact of Doppler Spectrum in Millimeter-Wave V2I Communications

by   Javier Lorca, et al.

With the advent of 5G cellular systems there is an increased interest in exploring higher frequency bands above 6 GHz. At these frequencies, beamforming appears as a straightforward solution to overcome higher path loss thereby altering the Doppler characteristics of the received waves. Higher frequencies can suffer from strong Doppler impairments because of the linear dependency of Doppler shift with carrier frequency, which makes them challenging to use in high-mobility scenarios, particularly Vehicular-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications. Therefore, the impact of beamforming on the Doppler characteristics of the received signals is of utter importance for future V2I systems. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the Doppler power spectrum in the presence of beamforming at the transmit and/or the receive sides. Further approximations are made for the resulting Doppler spread and Doppler shift when the receive beam width is sufficiently small, and a possible design solution is presented to control the Doppler spread in V2I systems. The results can be of key importance in waveform and air interface design for V2I systems.



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