1 Introduction
Graph transversal problems play a central role in Theoretical Computer Science. To define the notion of a graph transversal, let be a family of graphs, be a graph and be a subset of vertices of . The graph is obtained from by removing all vertices of and all edges incident to vertices in . We say that is an transversal of if is free, that is, if contains no induced subgraph isomorphic to a graph of . In other words, intersects every induced copy of every graph of in . Let and denote the cycle and path on vertices, respectively. Then is a vertex cover, feedback vertex set, or odd cycle transversal if is an transversal for, respectively, (that is, is edgeless), (that is, is a forest), or (that is, is bipartite).
Usually the goal is to find a transversal of minimum size in some given graph. In this paper we focus on the decision problems corresponding to the three transversals defined above. These are the Vertex Cover, Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal problems, which are to decide whether a given graph has a vertex cover, feedback vertex set or odd cycle transversal, respectively, of size at most for some given positive integer . Each of these three problems is well studied and is well known to be NPcomplete.
We may add further constraints to a transversal. In particular, we may require a transversal of a graph to be connected, that is, to induce a connected subgraph of . The corresponding decision problems for the three above transversals are then called Connected Vertex Cover, Connected Feedback Vertex Set and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal, respectively.
Garey and Johnson [15] proved that Connected Vertex Cover is NPcomplete even on planar graphs of maximum degree (see, for example, [14, 31, 36] for NPcompleteness results for other graph classes). Grigoriev and Sitters [18] proved that Connected Feedback Vertex Set is NPcomplete even on planar graphs with maximum degree . More recently, Chiarelli et al. [10] proved that Connected Odd Cycle Transversal is NPcomplete even on graphs of arbitrarily large girth and on line graphs.
As all three decision problems and their connected variants are NPcomplete, we can consider how to restrict the input to some special graph class in order to achieve tractability. Note that this approach is in line with the aforementioned results in the literature, where NPcompleteness was proven on special graph classes. It is also in line with with, for instance, polynomialtime results for Connected Vertex Cover by Escoffier, Gourvès and Monnot [12] (for chordal graphs) and Ueno, Kajitani and Gotoh [35] (for graphs of maximum degree at most and trees).
Just as in most of these papers, we consider hereditary graph classes, that is, graph classes closed under vertex deletion. Hereditary graph classes form a rich framework that captures many wellstudied graph classes. It is not difficult to see that every hereditary graph class can be characterized by a (possibly infinite) set of forbidden induced subgraphs. If , say , then is said to be monogenic, and every graph is said to be free. Considering monogenic graph classes can be seen as a natural first step for increasing our knowledge of the complexity of an NPcomplete problem in a systematic way. Hence, we consider the following research question:
How does the structure of a graph influence the computational complexity of a graph transversal problem for input graphs that are free?
Note that different graph transversal problems may behave differently on some class of free graphs. However, the general strategy for obtaining complexity results is to first try to prove that the restriction to free graphs is NPcomplete whenever contains a cycle or the claw (the 4vertex star). This is usually done by showing, respectively, that the problem is NPcomplete on graphs of arbitrarily large girth (length of a shortest cycle) and on line graphs, which form a subclass of clawfree graphs. If this is the case, then we are left to consider the case when does not contain a cycle, implying that is a forest, and does not contain a claw either, implying that is a linear forest, that is, the disjoint union of one or more paths.
1.1 The Graph Contains a Cycle or Claw
It follows from Poljak’s construction [30] that Vertex Cover is NPcomplete on graphs of arbitrarily large girth. Hence, Vertex Cover is NPcomplete on free graphs if contains a cycle. However, Vertex Cover becomes polynomialtime solvable when restricted to clawfree graphs [25, 32]. In contrast, the other five problems Connected Vertex Cover, (Connected) Feedback Vertex Set and (Connected) Odd Cycle Transversal are all NPcomplete on graphs of arbitrarily large girth and on line graphs; see Table 1. Hence, for these five problems, it remains to consider only the case when is a linear forest.
1.2 The Graph Is a Linear Forest
In this paper, we focus on proving new complexity results for Feedback Vertex Set, Connected Feedback Vertex Set, Odd Cycle Transversal and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal on free graphs. It follows from Section 1.1 that we may assume that is a linear forest. Below we first discuss the known polynomialtime solvable cases. As we will use algorithms for Vertex Cover and Connected Vertex Cover as subroutines for our new algorithms, we include these two problems in our discussion.
For every , Vertex Cover (by combining the results of [1, 34]) and Connected Vertex Cover [10] are polynomialtime solvable on free graphs.^{1}^{1}1The graph is the disjoint union of graphs and and is the disjoint union of copies of ; see Section 2. Moreover, Vertex Cover is also polynomialtime solvable on free graphs, for every [20], as is the case for Connected Vertex Cover on free graphs [24]. Their complexity on free graphs is unknown for and , respectively.
Both Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal are polynomialtime solvable on permutation graphs [4], and thus on free graphs. Recently, Okrasa and Rzążewski [29] proved that Odd Cycle Transversal is NPcomplete on free graphs. A small modification of their construction yields the same result for Connected Odd Cycle Transversal. The complexity of Feedback Vertex Set and Connected Feedback Vertex Set is unknown when restricted to free graphs for . For every , both problems and their connected variants are polynomialtime solvable on free graphs [10], using the price of connectivity for feedback vertex set [2, 21].^{2}^{2}2The price of connectivity concept was introduced by Cardinal and Levy [9] for vertex cover; see also, for example, [6, 7, 8].
1.3 Our Results
In Section 3 we prove that Connected Feedback Vertex Set and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal are polynomialtime solvable on free graphs, just as is the case for Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal. In Section 4 we prove that for every , these four problems are all polynomialtime solvable on free graphs; see also Table 1. Finally, in Section 5, we show that Odd Cycle Transversal and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal are NPcomplete on free graphs, that is, graphs that are both free and free.
girth  line graphs  free  free  free  

Vertex Cover  NPc [30]  P [25, 32]  P [1, 34]  P  P: , [20] 
Feedback Vertex Set  NPc [30]  NPc [33]  P [10]  P [4]  P: , 
Odd Cycle Transversal  NPc [10]  NPc [10]  P [10]  P [4]  P: , 
Con. Vertex Cover  NPc [28]  NPc [28]  P [10]  P  P: , [24] 
Con. Feedback Vertex Set  NPc [10]  NPc [10]  P [10]  P  P: , 
Con. Odd Cycle Transversal  NPc [10]  NPc [10]  P [10]  P  P: , 
To prove our polynomialtime results, we rely on two proof ingredients. The first one is that we use known algorithms for Vertex Cover and Connected Vertex Cover restricted to free graphs as subroutines in our new algorithms. The second is that we consider the connected variant of the transversal problems in a more general form. For Connected Vertex Cover this variant is defined as follows:
.99 Connected Vertex Cover Extension
[2pt] Instance: a graph , a subset and a positive integer . Question: does have a connected vertex cover with and ?
Note that Connected Vertex Cover Extension becomes the original problem if . We define the problems Connected Feedback Vertex Set Extension and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal Extension analogously. We will prove all our results for connected feedback vertex sets and connected odd cycle transversals for the extension versions. These extension versions will serve as auxiliary problems for some of our inductive arguments, but this approach also leads to slightly stronger results.
Remark 1
For any connected extension variant of these problems on transversals, we may assume that the input graph is connected. If it is not, then either all but at most one connected component of is free and does not intersect , in which case it need not be considered, or the answer is immediately no. It is easy to check freeness for the three problems we consider.
Remark 2
Note that one could also define extension versions for any original transversal problem (that is, where there is no requirement for the transversal to be connected). However, such extension versions will be polynomially equivalent. Indeed, we can solve the extension version on the input by considering the original problem on the input and adding to the solution. However, due to the connectivity condition, we cannot use this approach for the connected variants.
Remark 3
It is known that Vertex Cover is polynomialtime solvable on free graphs whenever this is the case on free graphs. This follows from a wellknown observation, see, for example, [27]: one can solve the complementary problem of finding a maximum independent set in a free graph by solving this problem on each free graph obtained by removing a vertex and all of its neighbours. However, this trick does not work for Connected Vertex Cover. Moreover, it does not work for Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal and their connected variants either.
2 Preliminaries
Let be a graph. For a set , we write to denote the subgraph of induced by . We say that is connected if is connected. We write to denote the graph . A subset is a dominating set of if every vertex of is adjacent to at least one vertex of . An edge of a graph is dominating if is a dominating set. The complement of is the graph . The neighbourhood of a vertex is the set and for , we let . We omit the subscript when there is no ambiguity. We denote the degree of a vertex by .
Let be a graph and let . Then is a clique if the vertices of are pairwise adjacent and an independent set if the vertices of are pairwise nonadjacent. A graph is complete if its vertex set is a clique. We let denote the complete graph on vertices. Let with . Then is complete to if every vertex of is adjacent to every vertex of , and is anticomplete to if there are no edges between and . In the first case, we also say that is complete to and in the second case anticomplete to .
A graph is bipartite if its vertex set can be partitioned into at most two independent sets. A bipartite graph is complete bipartite if its vertex set can be partitioned into two independent sets and such that is complete to . If or has size , the complete bipartite graph is said to be a star. Note that every edge of a complete bipartite graph is dominating.
Let and be two vertexdisjoint graphs. The union operation creates the disjoint union of and , that is, the graph with vertex set and edge set . We denote the disjoint union of copies of by . The join operation adds an edge between every vertex of and every vertex of . A graph is a cograph if can be generated from by a sequence of join and union operations. A graph is a cograph if and only if it is free (see, for example, [5]).
The following lemma is well known, but we include a short proof for completeness.
Lemma 1
Every connected free graph on at least two vertices has a spanning complete bipartite subgraph which can be found in polynomial time.
Proof
Let be a connected free graph on at least two vertices. Then is the join of two graphs and . Hence, has a spanning complete bipartite subgraph with partition classes and . Note that this implies that is disconnected. In order to find a (not necessarily unique) spanning complete bipartite subgraph of with partition classes and in polynomial time, we put the vertices of one connected component of in and all the other vertices of in .∎
Grzesik et al. [20] gave a polynomialtime algorithm for finding a maximum independent set of a free graph in polynomial time. As the complement of every independent set of a graph is a vertex cover, their result implies that Vertex Cover is polynomialtime solvable on free graphs. Using the folklore trick mentioned in Remark 3 (see also, for example, [24, 27]) their result can also be formulated as follows.
Theorem 2.1 ([20])
For every , Vertex Cover can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
We recall also that Connected Vertex Cover is polynomialtime solvable on free graphs [24]. We will need the extension version of this result. Its proof is based on a straightforward adaption of the proof for Connected Vertex Cover on free graphs [24].^{3}^{3}3See Appendix 0.A, where we include a proof for reviewing purposes.
Theorem 2.2 ([24])
For every , Connected Vertex Cover Extension can be solved in polynomial time on )free graphs.
3 The Case
Recall that Brandstädt and Kratsch [4] proved that Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal can be solved in polynomial time on permutation graphs, which form a superclass of the class of free graphs. Hence, we obtain the following proposition.
Proposition 1 ([4])
Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
In this section, we prove that the (extension versions of the) connected variants of Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal are also polynomialtime solvable on free graphs. We make use of Proposition 1 in the proofs.
Theorem 3.1
Connected Feedback Vertex Set Extension can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
Proof
Let be a free graph on vertices and let be a subset of . By Remark 1, we may assume that is connected. By Lemma 1, in polynomial time we can find a spanning complete bipartite subgraph , and we note that, by definition, every edge in is dominating. Below, in Step 3, in polynomial time we compute a smallest connected feedback vertex set of that contains and intersects both and . In Step 3, in polynomial time we compute a smallest connected feedback vertex set of that contains and that is a subset of either or (if such a set exists). Then the smallest set found is a smallest connected feedback vertex set of that contains .
Step 1. Compute a smallest connected feedback vertex set of such that , and .
We perform Step 3 as follows. Consider two vertices and .
We shall describe how to find a smallest connected feedback vertex set of that contains .
We find a smallest feedback vertex set in .
As is free, this takes polynomial time by Proposition 1.
Then is a smallest feedback vertex set of that contains and is connected, since is a dominating edge. By repeating this polynomialtime procedure for all possible choices of and , we will find in polynomial time.
Step 2. Compute a smallest connected feedback vertex set of such that or .
For Step 3 we describe only the case, as the case is symmetric. Thus we may assume that , otherwise no such set exists.
Clearly, we may also assume that contains no cycles.
If contains an edge it follows that , otherwise would contain a triangle.
Suppose instead that is an independent set.
If , then must be an independent set, otherwise contains a triangle.
So is a smallest connected vertex cover of that contains .
As is free, we can find such an in polynomial time by Theorem 2.2.
If , then , as otherwise contains a cycle.
Thus, we check, in polynomial time, if there exists a vertex , such that is connected.
If so, .∎
Theorem 3.2
Connected Odd Cycle Transversal Extension can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
Proof
We only provide an outline, as the proof follows that of Theorem 3.1. We perform the same two steps. In Step 3, we need to find a smallest odd cycle transversal in and can again apply Proposition 1. In Step 3, we again note that if contains an edge, then . Suppose that is an independent set. Then contains no odd cycles if and only if is independent, so is a smallest connected vertex cover of that contains . (That is, the case from the proof of Theorem 3.1 can be used for all values of , as we are no longer concerned with whether might contain cycles of even length.)∎
4 The Case
In this section, we will prove that Feedback Vertex Set and Odd Cycle Transversal and their connected variants can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs. We need three structural results. First, let us define a function on the nonnegative integers by . We will use this function throughout the remainder of this section, starting with the following lemma.
Lemma 2
Let be an integer. Let be a bipartite free graph. If has a connected component on at least vertices, then there are at most other connected components of and each of them is on at most two vertices.
Proof
First note that the case of the lemma is trivially true, as every connected component of a bipartite free graph has at most two vertices.
Suppose, for contradiction, that has a connected component on at least vertices and a connected component on at least three vertices. As is bipartite and contains at least vertices, contains a independent set of vertices that induce . As is bipartite and contains at least three vertices, has a vertex of degree at least , and so and two of its neighbours induce a . Thus is not free, a contradiction.
Similarly, if contains a connected component on at least vertices, then this component contains an induced . Since is free, can contain at most connected components other than . ∎
The internal vertices and leaves of a tree are the vertices of degree at least and degree , respectively.
Lemma 3
Let be an integer. Let be an free tree. Then has at most internal vertices.
Proof
Let be the set of internal vertices of . Suppose that . We will show that this leads to a contradiction. As a path with at least internal vertices contains an induced , we may assume that is not a path and so has at least three leaves. Hence .
Let and be the two bipartition sets of , and assume without loss of generality that . For , let and be the leaves and internal vertices of that belong to . If there is a vertex in of degree at least that is anticomplete to a set of vertices of , then contains an induced , a contradiction. Therefore we may assume that every vertex of either has degree at least or is in . Then
Thus we have and we rearrange to see that
Since , we have that . First suppose . Then and , or and . Both cases contradict the assumption that has at least vertices. Now suppose . Then, by our assumption that , we have that and so . Now it is easy to find an induced (see Figure 1), and this contradiction completes the proof.∎
The bound of in Lemma 3 is not tight but, as we shall see later, it suffices for our purposes.
Lemma 4
Let be an integer. Let be a connected free graph, and let be a set of vertices in . Then there is a set of vertices in such that is connected and .
Proof
If is connected, then let . Otherwise, since cannot now be a complete graph, it contains an induced path on three vertices in . The number of connected components of that do not contain a vertex that is either in or adjacent to a vertex of in is at most , otherwise contains an induced . Let contain the vertices of and the internal vertices of shortest paths in from to each set of vertices that induces a connected component of . As at most of these shortest paths have more than zero internal vertices, and as each contains at most internal vertices (any longer path contains an induced ), it follows that . As is connected, the lemma is proved. ∎
We now prove our four results. For the connected variants, we consider the more general extension versions.
Theorem 4.1
For every , Feedback Vertex Set can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
Proof
Let be an integer, and let be an free graph. We must show how to find a smallest feedback vertex set of . We will in fact show how to find a largest induced forest of , the complement of a smallest feedback vertex set. The proof is by induction on . If , then we can use Proposition 1. We now assume that and that we have a polynomialtime algorithm for finding a largest induced forest in free graphs. Our algorithm performs the following two steps in polynomial time. Together, these two steps cover all possibilities.
Step 1. Compute a largest induced forest such that every connected component of has at least vertices.
By Lemma 2 we know that will be connected, and so by Lemma 3 will be a tree with at most internal vertices.
We consider every possible choice of a nonempty set of at most vertices.
There are choices.
If induces a tree, we will find a largest induced tree whose internal vertices all belong to .
This can be found by adding to the largest possible set of vertices that are independent and belong to the set of vertices in that each have exactly one neighbour in .
That is, we need a largest independent set in and, by Theorem 2.1, such a set can be found in polynomial time.
Step 2. Compute a largest induced forest such that has a connected component with at most vertices.
We consider every possible choice of a nonempty set of at most vertices and discard those that do not induce a tree.
There are choices for .
Let , and let .
Then is free.
Thus we can find a largest induced forest of in polynomial time and is a largest induced forest of among those that have as a connected component.
∎
Theorem 4.2
For every , Connected Feedback Vertex Set Extension can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
Proof
There are similarities to the proof of Theorem 4.1, but more arguments are needed. Let be an integer, let be a connected free graph and let be a subset of . We must show how to find a smallest connected feedback vertex set of that contains in polynomial time. We show how to solve the complementary problem in polynomial time: how to find a largest induced forest of that does not include any vertex of and is connected. We will say that an induced forest is good if it has these two properties.
Our algorithm performs the following three steps in polynomial time. Together, these three steps cover all possibilities.
Step 1. Compute a largest good induced forest such that there is a connected component of that has at least vertices.
By Lemma 2 we know that has exactly one connected component on at least and there are at most other connected components of , each on at most two vertices.
By Lemma 3, the connected component on at least vertices has at most internal vertices.
We consider choices of a nonempty set of at most vertices that induces a tree and a set of at most vertices that induces a disjoint union of vertices and edges such that does not intersect ,
is disjoint from and no vertex of has a neighbour in .
Let be the set of vertices that each have exactly one neighbour in and no neighbour in , but do not belong to .
We then add to the largest possible set of vertices that are independent and belong to the set such that is connected.
This is achieved by taking the complement of the smallest connected vertex cover of that contains .
By Theorem 2.2, this can be done in polynomial time.
Step 2. Compute a largest good induced forest such that has at most connected components and each connected component has at most vertices.
Since the number of vertices in is bounded by the constant , we can simply check all sets containing at most that many vertices to see if they induce such a good forest.
Step 3. Compute a largest good induced forest such that has at least connected components and each connected component has at most vertices.
We consider choices of a nonempty set of at most vertices.
We reject unless is a good induced forest on connected components with no connected component of more than vertices.
Assuming our choice of is correct, the connected components of will become connected components of .
Let and note that no vertex of is in . If is a good forest, then we are done. Otherwise we consider every set of at most vertices of such that is connected; see also Figure 2. We note that if there is a largest induced forest such that the connected components of are also connected components of , then Lemma 4 applied to implies that such a set exists.
Let . If is a forest, then we are done. Otherwise note that is the disjoint union of one or more complete graphs: cannot contain an induced , as it is anticomplete to which contains an induced .
As is connected, each of the complete graphs in contains at least one vertex that is adjacent to some vertex of . Hence in polynomial time we can find a set of vertices containing all but vertices from each of the complete graphs in such a way that is connected. Then is a largest good induced forest that contains and no vertex of .
After considering each of the choices for , in polynomial time we find a largest good induced forest that contains and no vertex of . After considering each of the choices for , we find in polynomial time a largest good induced forest that has at least connected components, each with at most vertices. ∎
Theorem 4.3
For every , Odd Cycle Transversal can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
Proof
Let be an integer, and let be an free graph. We must describe how to find a smallest odd cycle transversal of . If , then we can use Proposition 1. We now assume that and use induction. We will in fact describe how to solve the complementary problem and find a largest induced bipartite subgraph of . The proof is by induction on and our algorithm performs two steps in polynomial time, which together cover all possibilities.
Step 1. Compute a largest induced bipartite subgraph such that every connected component of has at least vertices.
By Lemma 2, we know that will be connected. Hence, has a unique bipartition, which we denote .
We first find a largest induced bipartite subgraph that is a star: we consider each vertex and find a largest induced star centred at by finding a largest independent set in .
This can be done in polynomial time by Theorem 2.1.
Next, we find a largest induced bipartite subgraph that is not a star. We consider each of the choices of edges of and find a largest induced connected bipartite subgraph such that and and neither nor has degree in (since is not a star, it must contain such a pair of vertices). Note that the number of vertices in nonadjacent to is at most , otherwise induces an . Similarly there are at most vertices in nonadjacent to . We consider each of the possible pairs of disjoint sets and , which are each independent sets of size at most such that is anticomplete to . We will find a largest induced bipartite subgraph with partition classes and such that and and every vertex in is adjacent to and every vertex in is adjacent to . That is, we must find a largest independent set in both and ; see Figure 3 for an illustration. This can be done in polynomial time, again by applying Theorem 2.1.
Step 2. Compute a largest induced bipartite subgraph such that has a connected component with at most vertices.
We consider each of the possible choices of a nonempty set of at most vertices and discard those that do not induce a bipartite graph.
We will find the largest that has as a connected component.
Let , and let .
As is free, we can find a largest induced bipartite subgraph of in polynomial time and is a largest induced bipartite subgraph among those that have as a connected component.
∎
Theorem 4.4
For every , Connected Odd Cycle Transversal Extension can be solved in polynomial time on free graphs.
Proof
Let be an integer, let be a connected free graph and let be a subset of . We must describe how to find a smallest connected odd cycle transversal of that contains . We will solve the complementary problem: how to find a largest induced bipartite graph of that does not include any vertex of and whose complement is connected. We will say that an induced bipartite graph is good if it has these two properties. Our algorithm consists of three steps, which can each be performed in polynomial time and which together cover all the possible cases.
Step 1. Compute a largest good induced bipartite subgraph such that has a bipartition in which one set, say , has size .
(Note that this includes the case when every connected component of has at most two vertices and has at most connected components.)
We consider choices of an independent set of at most vertices of that does not intersect .
We wish to find , the largest possible independent set in such that is connected.
By Theorem 2.2, we can do this in polynomial time by computing a minimum connected vertex cover of that contains and taking its complement (in ).
Step 2. Compute a largest good induced bipartite subgraph such that has at least connected components and each connected component has at most two vertices.
Note that .
The algorithm mimics Step 4 of the algorithm in the proof of Theorem 4.2, but checks for a good bipartite graph instead of a good forest.
Step 3. Compute a largest good induced bipartite subgraph such that there is a connected component of that has at least three vertices and has a bipartition with and .
It is in this case that we must do most of the work in proving the theorem, and here we will need ideas beyond those already met in this section.
As contains a connected component on at least three vertices, it will contain an induced and so and . We consider choices of disjoint independent sets and that each contain vertices of and do not intersect . If contains an induced , our aim is to compute a largest good induced bipartite graph with bipartition such that and ; otherwise we discard the choice of .
We define (see also Figure 4) a partition of :
There are a number of steps where our procedure branches as we consider all possible ways of choosing whether or not to add certain vertices to . Note that assuming our choice of and is correct, no vertex of can be in . If we decide that a vertex will not be in , we will then add it to .
Step 3.1. Reduce to the empty set.
Notice that does not contain an independent set on more than vertices otherwise would contain an induced .
We consider choices of disjoint independent sets and that are each subsets of and each contain at most vertices.
We move the vertices of and by adding them to and , respectively.
We move the vertices of by adding them to .
If after this process is complete there are vertices in with neighbours in both and , we move these vertices by adding them to .
We note that now:

is the empty set,

still contains vertices with neighbours in but not in ,

still contains vertices with neighbours in but not in , and

contains vertices that will not be in .
So our task is to decide how best to add vertices of to and vertices of to , but first there is another step: as must be connected, and is a subgraph of , we choose some vertices that will not be in , but will connect together the connected components of . This will not be possible if the vertices of belong to more than one connected component of . Hence, in that case we discard this choice of .
Step 3.2. Make connected.
We consider choices of sets of vertices of such that each contains at most vertices.
If is connected, we move the vertices of by adding them to , and so becomes connected.
Note that since all vertices of are in the same connected component of , Lemma 4 implies that at least one such set can be found.
Step 3.3. Add vertices from to and from to .
We note that is free, as no vertex of has a neighbour in , , and is free.
By symmetry, is free.
Thus both and are disjoint unions of complete graphs.
Note that can contain at most one vertex from each of these complete graphs.
We consider two subcases.
Step 3.3a. Compute a largest good induced bipartite subgraph with bipartition such that , and contains no edges between and .
As must be connected, each clique of and that contains at least two vertices must contain a vertex adjacent to (otherwise such a set cannot exist).
Thus we can form from by adding to one vertex from each clique of and form by adding to one vertex from each clique of in such a way that is connected.
(If we do this, it is possible that will contain an edge from to , but then this solution is at least as large as one where such edges are avoided.)
Step 3.3b. Compute a largest good induced bipartite subgraph with bipartition such that , and has an edge where , .
We consider choices of an edge , , .
Let be a neighbour of and note that , and induce a in .
Therefore must be complete to all but at most cliques of .
By symmetry, must be complete to all but at most cliques of .
A clique in or is bad if it is not complete to or , respectively.
Note that the cliques containing and may be bad.
We move and to .
We consider choices of a set of at most vertices that each belong to a distinct bad clique and move each to or if they are in or respectively. We move the other vertices of the bad cliques to . If the vertices of are not in the same connected component of , we discard this choice of . We consider choices of sets of vertices of such that each contains at most vertices. If is connected we move the vertices of to , so becomes connected. Since the vertices of are in the same connected component of , Lemma 4 implies that at least one such set can be found.
Note that some cliques might have been completely removed from and by the choice of . It only remains to pick one vertex from each remaining clique of and , and add these vertices to or , respectively to finally obtain . As all vertices in these cliques are adjacent to or we know that will be connected. ∎
5 The Case
In this section we prove that Odd Cycle Transversal and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal are NPhard on free graphs. We do this by modifying the construction used in [29] for proving that these two problems are NPcomplete on free segment graphs.
Theorem 5.1
Odd Cycle Transversal and Connected Odd Cycle Transversal are NPcomplete on free graphs.
Proof
Both problems are readily seen to belong to NP. To prove NPhardness we reduce from Vertex Cover, which is known to be NPcomplete [16]. Let be an instance of Vertex Cover. Let and be the number of vertices and edges, respectively, in . Let be the vertices of . We construct a graph from as follows.

For create vertices and . Let and be the sets of, respectively, , , , and vertices.

For , add the edges and (so we make complete to both and ).

For each , add edges (a vertex gadget, see also Figure 4(a) and note that is adjacent to by the previous step).

For each edge in with , add a vertex adjacent to both and (an edge gadget, see also Figure 4(b)). Let be the set of vertices.
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