Nonleaf Patterns in Trees: Protected Nodes and Fine Numbers

by   Nachum Dershowitz, et al.

A closed-form formula is derived for the number of occurrences of matches of a multiset of patterns among all ordered (plane-planted) trees with a given number of edges. A pattern looks like a tree, with internal nodes and leaves, but also contain components that match subtrees or sequences of subtrees. This result extends previous versatile tree-pattern enumeration formulae to incorporate components that are only allowed to match nonleaf subtrees and provides enumerations of trees by the number of protected (shortest outgoing path has two or more edges) or unprotected nodes.



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