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Non-Local Graph-Based Prediction For Reversible Data Hiding In Images

by   Qi Chang, et al.

Reversible data hiding (RDH) is desirable in applications where both the hidden message and the cover medium need to be recovered without loss. Among many RDH approaches is prediction-error expansion (PEE), containing two steps: i) prediction of a target pixel value, and ii) embedding according to the value of prediction-error. In general, higher prediction performance leads to larger embedding capacity and/or lower signal distortion. Leveraging on recent advances in graph signal processing (GSP), we pose pixel prediction as a graph-signal restoration problem, where the appropriate edge weights of the underlying graph are computed using a similar patch searched in a semi-local neighborhood. Specifically, for each candidate patch, we first examine eigenvalues of its structure tensor to estimate its local smoothness. If sufficiently smooth, we pose a maximum a posteriori (MAP) problem using either a quadratic Laplacian regularizer or a graph total variation (GTV) term as signal prior. While the MAP problem using the first prior has a closed-form solution, we design an efficient algorithm for the second prior using alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) with nested proximal gradient descent. Experimental results show that with better quality GSP-based prediction, at low capacity the visual quality of the embedded image exceeds state-of-the-art methods noticeably.


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