Non-intrusive reduced order modeling of natural convection in porous media using convolutional autoencoders: comparison with linear subspace techniques

by   T. Kadeethum, et al.

Natural convection in porous media is a highly nonlinear multiphysical problem relevant to many engineering applications (e.g., the process of CO_2 sequestration). Here, we present a non-intrusive reduced order model of natural convection in porous media employing deep convolutional autoencoders for the compression and reconstruction and either radial basis function (RBF) interpolation or artificial neural networks (ANNs) for mapping parameters of partial differential equations (PDEs) on the corresponding nonlinear manifolds. To benchmark our approach, we also describe linear compression and reconstruction processes relying on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and ANNs. We present comprehensive comparisons among different models through three benchmark problems. The reduced order models, linear and nonlinear approaches, are much faster than the finite element model, obtaining a maximum speed-up of 7 × 10^6 because our framework is not bound by the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy condition; hence, it could deliver quantities of interest at any given time contrary to the finite element model. Our model's accuracy still lies within a mean squared error of 0.07 (two-order of magnitude lower than the maximum value of the finite element results) in the worst-case scenario. We illustrate that, in specific settings, the nonlinear approach outperforms its linear counterpart and vice versa. We hypothesize that a visual comparison between principal component analysis (PCA) or t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) could indicate which method will perform better prior to employing any specific compression strategy.



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