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No-Key Semi-Quantum Direct Communication Protocol with Low Quantum Resource Requirements

by   Haoye Lu, et al.

Full quantum capability devices can provide secure communications, but they are challenging to make portable given the current technology. Besides, classical portable devices are unable to construct communication channels resistant to quantum computers. Hence, communication security on portable devices cannot be guaranteed. Semi-Quantum Key Distribution (SQKD) and Semi-Quantum Direct Communication (SQDC) attempt to break the quandary by lowering the receiver's required quantum capability so that secure communications can be implemented on a portable device. However, all SQKD and SQDC protocols have low qubit efficiency and complex hardware implementations. The protocols involving quantum entanglement require linear ept and linear quregister size. In this paper, we propose two new no-key SQDC protocols that address the aforementioned weaknesses. They are named Economic No-key SQDC (ENKSQDC) and Rate Estimation ENKSQDC (RENKSQDC). They achieve theoretically constant minimal ept and quregister size, regardless of message length. We show that the new protocols, with low overhead, can detect Measure and Replay Attacks (MRAs). RENKSQDC is tolerant to transmission impairments and environmental perturbations. The protocols are based on a new quantum message transmission operation termed Tele-Conjure. Like QKD, their strength depends on physical principles rather than mathematical complexity.


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