Implementation of Appendix A (Neural Architecture Search with Reinforcement Learning: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.01578) by chainer
Neural networks are powerful and flexible models that work well for many difficult learning tasks in image, speech and natural language understanding. Despite their success, neural networks are still hard to design. In this paper, we use a recurrent network to generate the model descriptions of neural networks and train this RNN with reinforcement learning to maximize the expected accuracy of the generated architectures on a validation set. On the CIFAR-10 dataset, our method, starting from scratch, can design a novel network architecture that rivals the best human-invented architecture in terms of test set accuracy. Our CIFAR-10 model achieves a test error rate of 3.65, which is 0.09 percent better and 1.05x faster than the previous state-of-the-art model that used a similar architectural scheme. On the Penn Treebank dataset, our model can compose a novel recurrent cell that outperforms the widely-used LSTM cell, and other state-of-the-art baselines. Our cell achieves a test set perplexity of 62.4 on the Penn Treebank, which is 3.6 perplexity better than the previous state-of-the-art model. The cell can also be transferred to the character language modeling task on PTB and achieves a state-of-the-art perplexity of 1.214.READ FULL TEXT VIEW PDF
Implementation of Appendix A (Neural Architecture Search with Reinforcement Learning: https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.01578) by chainer
The last few years have seen much success of deep neural networks in many challenging applications, such as speech recognition (Hinton et al., 2012), image recognition (LeCun et al., 1998; Krizhevsky et al., 2012) and machine translation (Sutskever et al., 2014; Bahdanau et al., 2015; Wu et al., 2016). Along with this success is a paradigm shift from feature designing to architecture designing, i.e., from SIFT (Lowe, 1999), and HOG (Dalal & Triggs, 2005), to AlexNet (Krizhevsky et al., 2012), VGGNet (Simonyan & Zisserman, 2014), GoogleNet (Szegedy et al., 2015), and ResNet (He et al., 2016a). Although it has become easier, designing architectures still requires a lot of expert knowledge and takes ample time.
This paper presents Neural Architecture Search, a gradient-based method for finding good architectures (see Figure 1
) . Our work is based on the observation that the structure and connectivity of a neural network can be typically specified by a variable-length string. It is therefore possible to use a recurrent network – the controller – to generate such string. Training the network specified by the string – the “child network” – on the real data will result in an accuracy on a validation set. Using this accuracy as the reward signal, we can compute the policy gradient to update the controller. As a result, in the next iteration, the controller will give higher probabilities to architectures that receive high accuracies. In other words, the controller will learn to improve its search over time.
Our experiments show that Neural Architecture Search can design good models from scratch, an achievement considered not possible with other methods. On image recognition with CIFAR-10, Neural Architecture Search can find a novel ConvNet model that is better than most human-invented architectures. Our CIFAR-10 model achieves a 3.65 test set error, while being 1.05x faster than the current best model. On language modeling with Penn Treebank, Neural Architecture Search can design a novel recurrent cell that is also better than previous RNN and LSTM architectures. The cell that our model found achieves a test set perplexity of 62.4 on the Penn Treebank dataset, which is 3.6 perplexity better than the previous state-of-the-art.
Hyperparameter optimization is an important research topic in machine learning, and is widely used in practice (Bergstra et al., 2011; Bergstra & Bengio, 2012; Snoek et al., 2012, 2015; Saxena & Verbeek, 2016). Despite their success, these methods are still limited in that they only search models from a fixed-length space. In other words, it is difficult to ask them to generate a variable-length configuration that specifies the structure and connectivity of a network. In practice, these methods often work better if they are supplied with a good initial model (Bergstra & Bengio, 2012; Snoek et al., 2012, 2015). There are Bayesian optimization methods that allow to search non fixed length architectures (Bergstra et al., 2013; Mendoza et al., 2016), but they are less general and less flexible than the method proposed in this paper.
, on the other hand, are much more flexible for composing novel models, yet they are usually less practical at a large scale. Their limitations lie in the fact that they are search-based methods, thus they are slow or require many heuristics to work well.
Neural Architecture Search has some parallels to program synthesis and inductive programming, the idea of searching a program from examples (Summers, 1977; Biermann, 1978). In machine learning, probabilistic program induction has been used successfully in many settings, such as learning to solve simple Q&A (Liang et al., 2010; Neelakantan et al., 2015; Andreas et al., 2016), sort a list of numbers (Reed & de Freitas, 2015), and learning with very few examples (Lake et al., 2015).
The controller in Neural Architecture Search is auto-regressive, which means it predicts hyperparameters one a time, conditioned on previous predictions. This idea is borrowed from the decoder in end-to-end sequence to sequence learning (Sutskever et al., 2014)
. Unlike sequence to sequence learning, our method optimizes a non-differentiable metric, which is the accuracy of the child network. It is therefore similar to the work on BLEU optimization in Neural Machine Translation(Ranzato et al., 2015; Shen et al., 2016). Unlike these approaches, our method learns directly from the reward signal without any supervised bootstrapping.
Also related to our work is the idea of learning to learn or meta-learning (Thrun & Pratt, 2012), a general framework of using information learned in one task to improve a future task. More closely related is the idea of using a neural network to learn the gradient descent updates for another network (Andrychowicz et al., 2016) and the idea of using reinforcement learning to find update policies for another network (Li & Malik, 2016).
In the following section, we will first describe a simple method of using a recurrent network to generate convolutional architectures. We will show how the recurrent network can be trained with a policy gradient method to maximize the expected accuracy of the sampled architectures. We will present several improvements of our core approach such as forming skip connections to increase model complexity and using a parameter server approach to speed up training. In the last part of the section, we will focus on generating recurrent architectures, which is another key contribution of our paper.
In Neural Architecture Search, we use a controller to generate architectural hyperparameters of neural networks. To be flexible, the controller is implemented as a recurrent neural network. Let’s suppose we would like to predict feedforward neural networks with only convolutional layers, we can use the controller to generate their hyperparameters as a sequence of tokens:
In our experiments, the process of generating an architecture stops if the number of layers exceeds a certain value. This value follows a schedule where we increase it as training progresses. Once the controller RNN finishes generating an architecture, a neural network with this architecture is built and trained. At convergence, the accuracy of the network on a held-out validation set is recorded. The parameters of the controller RNN, , are then optimized in order to maximize the expected validation accuracy of the proposed architectures. In the next section, we will describe a policy gradient method which we use to update parameters so that the controller RNN generates better architectures over time.
The list of tokens that the controller predicts can be viewed as a list of actions to design an architecture for a child network. At convergence, this child network will achieve an accuracy on a held-out dataset. We can use this accuracy as the reward signal and use reinforcement learning to train the controller. More concretely, to find the optimal architecture, we ask our controller to maximize its expected reward, represented by :
Since the reward signal is non-differentiable, we need to use a policy gradient method to iteratively update . In this work, we use the REINFORCE rule from Williams (1992):
An empirical approximation of the above quantity is:
Where is the number of different architectures that the controller samples in one batch and is the number of hyperparameters our controller has to predict to design a neural network architecture. The validation accuracy that the -th neural network architecture achieves after being trained on a training dataset is .
As long as the baseline function does not depend on the on the current action, then this is still an unbiased gradient estimate. In this work, our baseline is an exponential moving average of the previous architecture accuracies.
In Neural Architecture Search, each gradient update to the controller parameters corresponds to training one child network to convergence. As training a child network can take hours, we use distributed training and asynchronous parameter updates in order to speed up the learning process of the controller (Dean et al., 2012). We use a parameter-server scheme where we have a parameter server of shards, that store the shared parameters for controller replicas. Each controller replica samples different child architectures that are trained in parallel. The controller then collects gradients according to the results of that minibatch of
architectures at convergence and sends them to the parameter server in order to update the weights across all controller replicas. In our implementation, convergence of each child network is reached when its training exceeds a certain number of epochs. This scheme of parallelism is summarized in Figure3.
In Section 3.1, the search space does not have skip connections, or branching layers used in modern architectures such as GoogleNet (Szegedy et al., 2015), and Residual Net (He et al., 2016a). In this section we introduce a method that allows our controller to propose skip connections or branching layers, thereby widening the search space.
To enable the controller to predict such connections, we use a set-selection type attention (Neelakantan et al., 2015) which was built upon the attention mechanism (Bahdanau et al., 2015; Vinyals et al., 2015). At layer , we add an anchor point which has content-based sigmoids to indicate the previous layers that need to be connected. Each sigmoid is a function of the current hiddenstate of the controller and the previous hiddenstates of the previous anchor points:
where represents the hiddenstate of the controller at anchor point for the -th layer, where ranges from to . We then sample from these sigmoids to decide what previous layers to be used as inputs to the current layer. The matrices , and
are trainable parameters. As these connections are also defined by probability distributions, the REINFORCE method still applies without any significant modifications. Figure4 shows how the controller uses skip connections to decide what layers it wants as inputs to the current layer.
In our framework, if one layer has many input layers then all input layers are concatenated in the depth dimension. Skip connections can cause “compilation failures” where one layer is not compatible with another layer, or one layer may not have any input or output. To circumvent these issues, we employ three simple techniques. First, if a layer is not connected to any input layer then the image is used as the input layer. Second, at the final layer we take all layer outputs that have not been connected and concatenate them before sending this final hiddenstate to the classifier. Lastly, if input layers to be concatenated have different sizes, we pad the small layers with zeros so that the concatenated layers have the same sizes.
Finally, in Section 3.1, we do not predict the learning rate and we also assume that the architectures consist of only convolutional layers, which is also quite restrictive. It is possible to add the learning rate as one of the predictions. Additionally, it is also possible to predict pooling, local contrast normalization (Jarrett et al., 2009; Krizhevsky et al., 2012), and batchnorm (Ioffe & Szegedy, 2015) in the architectures. To be able to add more types of layers, we need to add an additional step in the controller RNN to predict the layer type, then other hyperparameters associated with it.
In this section, we will modify the above method to generate recurrent cells. At every time step , the controller needs to find a functional form for that takes and as inputs. The simplest way is to have , which is the formulation of a basic recurrent cell. A more complicated formulation is the widely-used LSTM recurrent cell (Hochreiter & Schmidhuber, 1997).
The computations for basic RNN and LSTM cells can be generalized as a tree of steps that take and as inputs and produce
as final output. The controller RNN needs to label each node in the tree with a combination method (addition, elementwise multiplication, etc.) and an activation function (, , etc.) to merge two inputs and produce one output. Two outputs are then fed as inputs to the next node in the tree. To allow the controller RNN to select these methods and functions, we index the nodes in the tree in an order so that the controller RNN can visit each node one by one and label the needed hyperparameters.
Inspired by the construction of the LSTM cell (Hochreiter & Schmidhuber, 1997), we also need cell variables and to represent the memory states. To incorporate these variables, we need the controller RNN to predict what nodes in the tree to connect these two variables to. These predictions can be done in the last two blocks of the controller RNN.
To make this process more clear, we show an example in Figure 5, for a tree structure that has two leaf nodes and one internal node. The leaf nodes are indexed by 0 and 1, and the internal node is indexed by 2. The controller RNN needs to first predict 3 blocks, each block specifying a combination method and an activation function for each tree index. After that it needs to predict the last 2 blocks that specify how to connect and to temporary variables inside the tree. Specifically, according to the predictions of the controller RNN in this example, the following computation steps will occur:
The controller predicts and for tree index 0, this means we need to compute .
The controller predicts and for tree index 1, this means we need to compute .
The controller predicts 0 for the second element of the “Cell Index”, and for elements in “Cell Inject”, which means we need to compute . Notice that we don’t have any learnable parameters for the internal nodes of the tree.
The controller predicts and for tree index 2, this means we need to compute . Since the maximum index in the tree is 2, is set to .
The controller RNN predicts 1 for the first element of the “Cell Index”, this means that we should set to the output of the tree at index 1 before the activation, i.e., .
In the above example, the tree has two leaf nodes, thus it is called a “base 2” architecture. In our experiments, we use a base number of 8 to make sure that the cell is expressive.
We apply our method to an image classification task with CIFAR-10 and a language modeling task with Penn Treebank, two of the most benchmarked datasets in deep learning. On CIFAR-10, our goal is to find a good convolutional architecture whereas on Penn Treebank our goal is to find a good recurrent cell. On each dataset, we have a separate held-out validation dataset to compute the reward signal. The reported performance on the test set is computed only once for the network that achieves the best result on the held-out validation dataset. More details about our experimental procedures and results are as follows.
In these experiments we use the CIFAR-10 dataset with data preprocessing and augmentation procedures that are in line with other previous results. We first preprocess the data by whitening all the images. Additionally, we upsample each image then choose a random 32x32 crop of this upsampled image. Finally, we use random horizontal flips on this 32x32 cropped image.
Our search space consists of convolutional architectures, with rectified linear units as non-linearities(Nair & Hinton, 2010)2015) and skip connections between layers (Section 3.3). For every convolutional layer, the controller RNN has to select a filter height in [1, 3, 5, 7], a filter width in [1, 3, 5, 7], and a number of filters in [24, 36, 48, 64]. For strides, we perform two sets of experiments, one where we fix the strides to be 1, and one where we allow the controller to predict the strides in [1, 2, 3].
The controller RNN is a two-layer LSTM with 35 hidden units on each layer. It is trained with the ADAM optimizer (Kingma & Ba, 2015) with a learning rate of 0.0006. The weights of the controller are initialized uniformly between -0.08 and 0.08. For the distributed training, we set the number of parameter server shards to 20, the number of controller replicas to 100 and the number of child replicas to 8, which means there are 800 networks being trained on 800 GPUs concurrently at any time.
Once the controller RNN samples an architecture, a child model is constructed and trained for 50 epochs. The reward used for updating the controller is the maximum validation accuracy of the last 5 epochs cubed. The validation set has 5,000 examples randomly sampled from the training set, the remaining 45,000 examples are used for training. The settings for training the CIFAR-10 child models are the same with those used in Huang et al. (2016a)
. We use the Momentum Optimizer with a learning rate of 0.1, weight decay of 1e-4, momentum of 0.9 and used Nesterov Momentum(Sutskever et al., 2013).
During the training of the controller, we use a schedule of increasing number of layers in the child networks as training progresses. On CIFAR-10, we ask the controller to increase the depth by 2 for the child models every 1,600 samples, starting at 6 layers.
After the controller trains 12,800 architectures, we find the architecture that achieves the best validation accuracy. We then run a small grid search over learning rate, weight decay, batchnorm epsilon and what epoch to decay the learning rate. The best model from this grid search is then run until convergence and we then compute the test accuracy of such model and summarize the results in Table 1. As can be seen from the table, Neural Architecture Search can design several promising architectures that perform as well as some of the best models on this dataset.
|Model||Depth||Parameters||Error rate (%)|
|Network in Network (Lin et al., 2013)||-||-||8.81|
|All-CNN (Springenberg et al., 2014)||-||-||7.25|
|Deeply Supervised Net (Lee et al., 2015)||-||-||7.97|
|Highway Network (Srivastava et al., 2015)||-||-||7.72|
|Scalable Bayesian Optimization (Snoek et al., 2015)||-||-||6.37|
|FractalNet (Larsson et al., 2016)||21||38.6M||5.22|
|ResNet (He et al., 2016a)||110||1.7M||6.61|
|ResNet (reported by Huang et al. (2016c))||110||1.7M||6.41|
|ResNet with Stochastic Depth (Huang et al., 2016c)||110||1.7M||5.23|
|Wide ResNet (Zagoruyko & Komodakis, 2016)||16||11.0M||4.81|
|ResNet (pre-activation) (He et al., 2016b)||164||1.7M||5.46|
|DenseNet Huang et al. (2016a)||40||1.0M||5.24|
|DenseNet Huang et al. (2016a)||100||7.0M||4.10|
|DenseNet Huang et al. (2016a)||100||27.2M||3.74|
|DenseNet-BC Huang et al. (2016b)||190||25.6M||3.46|
|Neural Architecture Search v1 no stride or pooling||15||4.2M||5.50|
|Neural Architecture Search v2 predicting strides||20||2.5M||6.01|
Neural Architecture Search v3 max pooling
|Neural Architecture Search v3 max pooling + more filters||39||37.4M||3.65|
First, if we ask the controller to not predict stride or pooling, it can design a 15-layer architecture that achieves 5.50% error rate on the test set. This architecture has a good balance between accuracy and depth. In fact, it is the shallowest and perhaps the most inexpensive architecture among the top performing networks in this table. This architecture is shown in Appendix A, Figure 7. A notable feature of this architecture is that it has many rectangular filters and it prefers larger filters at the top layers. Like residual networks (He et al., 2016a), the architecture also has many one-step skip connections. This architecture is a local optimum in the sense that if we perturb it, its performance becomes worse. For example, if we densely connect all layers with skip connections, its performance becomes slightly worse: 5.56%. If we remove all skip connections, its performance drops to 7.97%.
In the second set of experiments, we ask the controller to predict strides in addition to other hyperparameters. As stated earlier, this is more challenging because the search space is larger. In this case, it finds a 20-layer architecture that achieves 6.01% error rate on the test set, which is not much worse than the first set of experiments.
Finally, if we allow the controller to include 2 pooling layers at layer 13 and layer 24 of the architectures, the controller can design a 39-layer network that achieves 4.47% which is very close to the best human-invented architecture that achieves 3.74%. To limit the search space complexity we have our model predict 13 layers where each layer prediction is a fully connected block of 3 layers. Additionally, we change the number of filters our model can predict from [24, 36, 48, 64] to [6, 12, 24, 36]. Our result can be improved to 3.65% by adding 40 more filters to each layer of our architecture. Additionally this model with 40 filters added is 1.05x as fast as the DenseNet model that achieves 3.74%, while having better performance. The DenseNet model that achieves 3.46% error rate (Huang et al., 2016b) uses 1x1 convolutions to reduce its total number of parameters, which we did not do, so it is not an exact comparison.
We apply Neural Architecture Search to the Penn Treebank dataset, a well-known benchmark for language modeling. On this task, LSTM architectures tend to excel (Zaremba et al., 2014; Gal, 2015), and improving them is difficult (Jozefowicz et al., 2015). As PTB is a small dataset, regularization methods are needed to avoid overfitting. First, we make use of the embedding dropout and recurrent dropout techniques proposed in Zaremba et al. (2014) and (Gal, 2015). We also try to combine them with the method of sharing Input and Output embeddings, e.g., Bengio et al. (2003); Mnih & Hinton (2007), especially Inan et al. (2016) and Press & Wolf (2016). Results with this method are marked with “shared embeddings.”
Following Section 3.4, our controller sequentially predicts a combination method then an activation function for each node in the tree. For each node in the tree, the controller RNN needs to select a combination method in and an activation method in . The number of input pairs to the RNN cell is called the “base number” and set to 8 in our experiments. When the base number is 8, the search space is has approximately architectures, which is much larger than 15,000, the number of architectures that we allow our controller to evaluate.
The controller and its training are almost identical to the CIFAR-10 experiments except for a few modifications: 1) the learning rate for the controller RNN is 0.0005, slightly smaller than that of the controller RNN in CIFAR-10, 2) in the distributed training, we set to 20, to 400 and to 1, which means there are 400 networks being trained on 400 CPUs concurrently at any time, 3) during asynchronous training we only do parameter updates to the parameter-server once 10 gradients from replicas have been accumulated.
In our experiments, every child model is constructed and trained for 35 epochs. Every child model has two layers, with the number of hidden units adjusted so that total number of learnable parameters approximately match the “medium” baselines (Zaremba et al., 2014; Gal, 2015). In these experiments we only have the controller predict the RNN cell structure and fix all other hyperparameters. The reward function is where is a constant, usually set at 80.
After the controller RNN is done training, we take the best RNN cell according to the lowest validation perplexity and then run a grid search over learning rate, weight initialization, dropout rates and decay epoch. The best cell found was then run with three different configurations and sizes to increase its capacity.
In Table 2, we provide a comprehensive list of architectures and their performance on the PTB dataset. As can be seen from the table, the models found by Neural Architecture Search outperform other state-of-the-art models on this dataset, and one of our best models achieves a gain of almost 3.6 perplexity. Not only is our cell is better, the model that achieves 64 perplexity is also more than two times faster because the previous best network requires running a cell 10 times per time step (Zilly et al., 2016).
|Mikolov & Zweig (2012) - KN-5||2M|
|Mikolov & Zweig (2012) - KN5 + cache||2M|
|Mikolov & Zweig (2012) - RNN||6M|
|Mikolov & Zweig (2012) - RNN-LDA||7M|
|Mikolov & Zweig (2012) - RNN-LDA + KN-5 + cache||9M|
|Pascanu et al. (2013) - Deep RNN||6M|
|Cheng et al. (2014) - Sum-Prod Net||5M|
|Zaremba et al. (2014) - LSTM (medium)||20M|
|Zaremba et al. (2014) - LSTM (large)||66M|
|Gal (2015) - Variational LSTM (medium, untied)||20M|
|Gal (2015) - Variational LSTM (medium, untied, MC)||20M|
|Gal (2015) - Variational LSTM (large, untied)||66M|
|Gal (2015) - Variational LSTM (large, untied, MC)||66M|
|Kim et al. (2015) - CharCNN||19M|
|Press & Wolf (2016) - Variational LSTM, shared embeddings||51M|
|Merity et al. (2016) - Zoneout + Variational LSTM (medium)||20M|
|Merity et al. (2016) - Pointer Sentinel-LSTM (medium)||21M|
|Inan et al. (2016) - VD-LSTM + REAL (large)||51M|
|Zilly et al. (2016) - Variational RHN, shared embeddings||24M|
|Neural Architecture Search with base 8||32M|
|Neural Architecture Search with base 8 and shared embeddings||25M|
|Neural Architecture Search with base 8 and shared embeddings||54M|
To understand whether the cell can generalize to a different task, we apply it to the character language modeling task on the same dataset. We use an experimental setup that is similar to Ha et al. (2016), but use variational dropout by Gal (2015). We also train our own LSTM with our setup to get a fair LSTM baseline. Models are trained for 80K steps and the best test set perplexity is taken according to the step where validation set perplexity is the best. The results on the test set of our method and state-of-art methods are reported in Table 3. The results on small settings with 5-6M parameters confirm that the new cell does indeed generalize, and is better than the LSTM cell.
|RNN Cell Type||Parameters||Test Bits Per Character|
|Ha et al. (2016) - Layer Norm HyperLSTM||4.92M||1.250|
|Ha et al. (2016) - Layer Norm HyperLSTM Large Embeddings||5.06M||1.233|
|Ha et al. (2016) - 2-Layer Norm HyperLSTM||14.41M||1.219|
|Two layer LSTM||6.57M||1.243|
|Two Layer with New Cell||6.57M||1.228|
|Two Layer with New Cell||16.28M||1.214|
Additionally, we carry out a larger experiment where the model has 16.28M parameters. This model has a weight decay rate of , was trained for 600K steps (longer than the above models) and the test perplexity is taken where the validation set perplexity is highest. We use dropout rates of 0.2 and 0.5 as described in Gal (2015), but do not use embedding dropout. We use the ADAM optimizer with a learning rate of 0.001 and an input embedding size of 128. Our model had two layers with 800 hidden units. We used a minibatch size of 32 and BPTT length of 100. With this setting, our model achieves 1.214 perplexity, which is the new state-of-the-art result on this task.
Finally, we also drop our cell into the GNMT framework (Wu et al., 2016), which was previously tuned for LSTM cells, and train an WMT14 English German translation model. The GNMT network has 8 layers in the encoder, 8 layers in the decoder. The first layer of the encoder has bidirectional connections. The attention module is a neural network with 1 hidden layer. When a LSTM cell is used, the number of hidden units in each layer is 1024. The model is trained in a distributed setting with a parameter sever and 12 workers. Additionally, each worker uses 8 GPUs and a minibatch of 128. We use Adam with a learning rate of 0.0002 in the first 60K training steps, and SGD with a learning rate of 0.5 until 400K steps. After that the learning rate is annealed by dividing by 2 after every 100K steps until it reaches 0.1. Training is stopped at 800K steps. More details can be found in Wu et al. (2016).
In our experiment with the new cell, we make no change to the above settings except for dropping in the new cell and adjusting the hyperparameters so that the new model should have the same computational complexity with the base model. The result shows that our cell, with the same computational complexity, achieves an improvement of 0.5 test set BLEU than the default LSTM cell. Though this improvement is not huge, the fact that the new cell can be used without any tuning on the existing GNMT framework is encouraging. We expect further tuning can help our cell perform better.
To test the robustness of Neural Architecture Search, we add to the list of combination functions and to the list of activation functions and rerun our experiments. The results show that even with a bigger search space, the model can achieve somewhat comparable performance. The best architecture with and is shown in Figure 8 in Appendix A.
Instead of policy gradient, one can use random search to find the best network. Although this baseline seems simple, it is often very hard to surpass (Bergstra & Bengio, 2012). We report the perplexity improvements using policy gradient against random search as training progresses in Figure 6. The results show that not only the best model using policy gradient is better than the best model using random search, but also the average of top models is also much better.
In this paper we introduce Neural Architecture Search, an idea of using a recurrent neural network to compose neural network architectures. By using recurrent network as the controller, our method is flexible so that it can search variable-length architecture space. Our method has strong empirical performance on very challenging benchmarks and presents a new research direction for automatically finding good neural network architectures. The code for running the models found by the controller on CIFAR-10 and PTB will be released at https://github.com/tensorflow/models . Additionally, we have added the RNN cell found using our method under the name NASCell into TensorFlow, so others can easily use it.
. Additionally, we have added the RNN cell found using our method under the name NASCell into TensorFlow, so others can easily use it.
We thank Greg Corrado, Jeff Dean, David Ha, Lukasz Kaiser and the Google Brain team for their help with the project.
Rectified linear units improve restricted Boltzmann machines.In ICML, 2010.