Network Coding-Based Post-Quantum Cryptography

09/03/2020 ∙ by Alejandro Cohen, et al. ∙ 0

We propose a novel hybrid universal network-coding cryptosystem (HUNCC) to obtain secure post-quantum cryptography at high communication rates. The secure network-coding scheme we offer is hybrid in the sense that it combines information-theory security with public-key cryptography. In addition, the scheme is general and can be applied to any communication network, and to any public-key cryptosystem. Our hybrid scheme is based on the information theoretic notion of individual secrecy, which traditionally relies on the assumption that an eavesdropper can only observe a subset of the communication links between the trusted parties - an assumption that is often challenging to enforce. For this setting, several code constructions have been developed, where the messages are linearly mixed before transmission over each of the paths in a way that guarantees that an adversary which observes only a subset has sufficient uncertainty about each individual message. Instead, in this paper, we take a computational viewpoint, and construct a coding scheme in which an arbitrary secure cryptosystem is utilized on a subset of the links, while a pre-processing similar to the one in individual security is utilized. Under this scheme, we demonstrate 1) a computational security guarantee for an adversary which observes the entirety of the links 2) an information theoretic security guarantee for an adversary which observes a subset of the links, and 3) information rates which approach the capacity of the network and greatly improve upon the current solutions. A perhaps surprising consequence of our scheme is that, to guarantee a computational security level b, it is sufficient to encrypt a single link using a computational post-quantum scheme. In addition, the information rate approaches 1 as the number of communication links increases.

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