Multiple imputation and selection of ordinal level 2 predictors in multilevel models. An analysis of the relationship between student ratings and teacher beliefs and practices

by   Leonardo Grilli, et al.

The paper is motivated by the analysis of the relationship between ratings and teacher practices and beliefs, which are measured via a set of binary and ordinal items collected by a specific survey with nearly half missing respondents. The analysis, which is based on a two-level random effect model, must face two about the items measuring teacher practices and beliefs: (i) these items level 2 predictors severely affected by missingness; (ii) there is redundancy in the number of items and the number of categories of their measurement scale. tackle the first issue by considering a multiple imputation strategy based on information at both level 1 and level 2. For the second issue, we consider regularization techniques for ordinal predictors, also accounting for the multilevel data structure. The proposed solution combines existing methods in an original way to solve specific problem at hand, but it is generally applicable to settings requiring to select predictors affected by missing values. The results obtained with the final model out that some teacher practices and beliefs are significantly related to ratings about teacher ability to motivate students.


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