I Introduction
Visual navigation is an important area of research in robotics. Visual odometry (VO) estimates the motion of a camera (i.e., its egomotion) relative to observed static objects within a scene [1]. These static objects must be accurately segmented from any dynamic noise, and this segmentation itself is an area of research focus [2]. Less research in visual navigation has focused on also analyzing the dynamic regions of the scene that these approaches reject.
This motion estimation problem requires both estimation, i.e., calculating the motion of a set of points, and segmentation, i.e., clustering points according to their movement between observations. The interdependence of these tasks creates a chicken-and-egg
problem that is addressed in VO systems by using heuristics (e.g., number of features) to select the egomotion and ignore the other motions in the scene. These heuristics are not readily extensible to
multimotion estimation problems and analyzing multiple independently moving bodies remains a challenging problem for state-of-the-art vision systems. This paper extends traditional VO to multimotion visual odometry (MVO) and applies state-of-the-art techniques to estimate trajectories for every motion in a scene.MVO applies multimodel fitting techniques (e.g., CORAL [3]) to the traditional VO pipeline to simultaneously estimate the trajectories of all motions within a scene. Sparse, 3D visual features are decomposed into independent rigid motions and the trajectories of all of these motions, including the egomotion of the camera, are estimated simultaneously (Fig. 1). This paper demonstrates MVO on a stereo camera, but the technique is applicable to a variety of other 3D sensors, including RGB-D cameras and lidar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach capable of estimating the full trajectory of every rigid motion in a complex, dynamic scene from a stereo/RGB-D camera without relying on simplifying constraints or fragile initialization.
Ii Background
The constituent aspects of the multimotion estimation problem are often referred to as multiple object tracking (MOT) [4] and multibody structure from motion (MBSfM) [5]. As such, the majority of approaches focus primarily on one part of the problem and either do not fully estimate motions (Sections II-C and II-B), depend on simplifying constraints and assumptions (Sections II-E and II-D), or require fragile initialization steps (Section II-F).
Ii-a Problem Definition
Discrete multimotion estimation is the problem of estimating all the motions, including the camera, in a scene from a set of point observations at each time step. It both estimates the motions as a series of discrete transforms and associates the observed tracklets with the estimated motions.
Dynamic environments consist of the static background, a moving observer, i.e., the camera, and one or more independent, third-party motions. The pose of a motion, , at each discrete time, , is represented as a coordinate frame, , and related to a privileged initial pose through an transform, (Fig. (a)a). A sequence of these transforms over a set of frames constitutes the trajectory of the motion, . Likewise, a sequence of observations of a point, , by a moving camera, , over multiple frames forms a tracklet, , where refers to the observing camera frame at time (Fig. (b)b). Tracklets moving with a common trajectory can be grouped into bulk motions as .
Motions estimated from these measurements are egocentric. They can be represented as geocentric motions after identifying one motion as the camera, .
Ii-B Flow Techniques
Optical flow [6], scene flow [7], and sparse scene flow [8]
are approaches for finding the 2D or 3D velocity vector of pixels or feature points in a scene. These individual velocities are inherently translational and motions involving rotations (i.e.,
transforms) can only be estimated from segmentations of three or more velocities. In the presence of small rotations, these segmentations can be achieved using flow discontinuities [9] or the vector distance between velocities [8].Larger rotations result in smoothly varying tangential velocities that provide no clear segmentations (Fig. 3a). To correctly estimate these motions, flow techniques must solve an equivalent segmentation and estimation problem posed in the space of velocities. In contrast to these flow techniques, MVO simultaneously segments and estimates full transforms of motions in the scene (Fig. 3b).
Ii-C Tracking-by-Detection Methods
Appearance-based tracking techniques detect objects in images and then solve the association and motion estimation problems [4]. Kalman or particle filters are widely used to estimate the motion of the detected objects given a motion model but struggle to handle detection errors or occlusions [10].
Byeon et al. [11] propose an optimization framework for tracking multiple objects and estimating their trajectories from multiple static cameras by incorporating reconstruction and motion dynamics in their cost function. Zhang et al. [12] model tracking as a mininimum-flow problem on a graph where nodes represent detections and edges represent transitions between frames.
Object detectors are designed either for some specified class of objects or dynamically for some object of interest. These detectors are therefore specialized for a specific set of applications or are fragile to appearance changes and need to be refined over time [13].
Many of these approaches require either static or known camera motion and therefore need to incorporate separate egomotion estimators [14]. The object positions only exist in and do not fully encapsulate the motions of the objects. Kundu et al. [15] extend egomotion estimation with MBSfM techniques similar to [14] to estimate the trajectories of the third-party motions in a scene, but they constrain all the motions to the horizontal plane.
Unlike these appearance-based techniques, MVO relies on low-level feature tracking. This means it can handle large changes in object appearance over time so long as a suitable number of features remain stable between each pair of frames. MVO also estimates the full, unconstrained motion within a scene, including the egomotion of the camera.
Ii-D Subspace Methods
Subspace techniques cluster sparse feature points and their motions into lower-dimensional subspaces using the affine camera model. The affine model approximates the nonlinear perspective projection with a linear parallel projection. This simplifies the camera model but introduces severe projection errors in scenes with a wide field of view or a large depth of field [16].
Tomasi and Kanade [17] use the affine model and matrix factorization to decompose tracked image points into a motion and a shape matrix. Costeira and Kanade [5] extend this technique to mutiple bodies where points may belong to different objects. This approach is inherently fragile as noise propagates through the factorization in complex ways [18]. It also requires points to be tracked for the entirety of the estimation window, which is difficult in complex scenes.
This formulation was extended by using an optimization framework to allow feature point dropouts [19] and by merging motions to mitigate the effect of noise [18, 20]. While these techniques are able to estimate full motions, they still depend upon an affine camera model, meaning they fail under any significant perspective effects.
These factorization techniques have also been extended to the perspective camera model by estimating depth in a preprocessing stage [21] or by applying geometric constraints [22] but still remain very sensitive to noise. In comparison, MVO can robustly estimate full trajectories using a perspective model while also handling the significant feature tracking failures characteristic of dynamic scenes.
Ii-E Sampling Methods
Sampling methods estimate and fit models (e.g., motion trajectories) to a subset of the data before evaluating them across its entirety. RANSAC [23]
is a popular framework to fit a model to data in the presence of noise. Points are sampled from the data to estimate a hypothesis model, which is then used to segment the data into inliers and outliers according to their fit. Hypotheses are repeatedly generated for some number of iterations and the model with the most inliers is selected as the segmentation and estimation.
Torr [24] extends the RANSAC framework to multiple models by finding the dominant model, removing those points that fit the model, and then recursively applying RANSAC to the remaining points. This recursive, sequential RANSAC framework is efficient at finding the dominant models in a scene, but the ability to sample consistent models decreases as models are removed and the signal-to-noise ratio of the remaining points decreases. Sabzevari and Scaramuzza [25] apply geometric and kinematic constraints to reduce the required number of points to estimate a motion model and then realign point assignments to the best set of motion hypotheses in a separate step. They use the same matrix formulation as [21], meaning points must be successfully tracked through the entirety of the window, and their applications are limited by the constraints.
Other techniques [26, 27] use sampling methods to generate a large number of initial model hypotheses, realizing many of them would be redundant or poorly fit the data. Models are merged if their inlier sets are largely overlapping, and the models with the largest nonoverlapping inlier sets after merging are taken as the constituent scene motions.
These sampling methods are efficient but the probability of sampling inliers all from a single model decreases rapidly with the signal-to-noise ratio. Finding a motion in complex dynamic scenes is challenging because all other motions are outliers that decrease the signal-to-noise ratio and make it harder to find correct models. As a result, many of these sampling-based initializations struggle to find correct models.
Without prior knowledge of the number of models in the data, RANSAC tends to greedily overfit to noise and finds erroneous or incomplete models (Fig. 4). In contrast, MVO estimates all models simultaneously and requires no a priori knowledge of the number of models.
Ii-F Energy Minimization Methods
Energy minimization approaches segment data into multiple labels simultaneously by reducing a cost function. In multimotion estimation, this cost is designed to encompass how well the estimated trajectories describe the data, e.g., reprojection or photoconsistency error, as well as encourage piecewise smoothness throughout the scene. Smoothness is enforced over a graph structure, usually either a dense Markov random field [28] or a sparse, feature-based graph [29].
Rother et al. [30] use a minimization framework to find a binary segmentation of the static background from a manually selected dynamic foreground object, but the approach can only segment a single object within a bounding box. PEARL [29] uses
-expansion and model refitting to iteratively estimate both models and point assignments in an expectation-maximization framework. The framework can be applied to motion segmentation by first sampling the data to estimate a large number of motion models (similarly to
[26, 27]) and then refining the models and segmentation with PEARL. Roussos et al. [31] use PEARL as part of a dense expectation-maximization pipeline that estimates depth, motion, and segmentation from monocular images in an offline manner. Optical flow is used to initialize the depth maps and the approach is crucially dependent on this initialization.Rünz and Agapito [32] use a similar optimization framework to segment dense RGB-D camera observations. Using this segmentation they create multiple 3D object models whose motions are then tracked, establishing new motions online. This approach requires an initialization phase that seeds the structure and segmentation of the background of the scene.
These approaches are capable of estimating full motions but are dependent upon comprehensive initialization, often using RANSAC, as they are designed around refining existing labels. In comparison, MVO iteratively proposes and refines labels, allowing it to find motions that may be difficult to initially segment with sampling methods alone.
Ii-G Multimotion Visual Odometry (MVO)
To the best of our knowledge, this paper introduces the first online approach capable of directly estimating full trajectories for every motion in a complex, dynamic scene from a stereo/RGB-D camera using only a rigid-body assumption. The approach uses multilabeling and estimation techniques to model the motions of tracklet features over multiple frames. The hypothesis trajectories are then applied to individual tracklets by CORAL [3], a convex optimization approach to the multilabeling problem. These hypotheses are iteratively improved through splitting and merging of the models, unlike other labeling approaches that initially sample them from the scene. The full trajectory of each motion is finally estimated using traditional VO batch estimation techniques. This approach is evaluated on a dataset containing ground-truth trajectories for all motions in the scene.
Iii Methodology
The stereo MVO pipeline (Fig. 5a) extends the traditional stereo VO pipeline to multimodel segmentation and estimation. The incoming RGB stereo images are first rectified and undistorted according to known camera extrinsics and intrinsics. Salient image points are detected and matched across left and right images in each stereo pair and across temporally consecutive pairs of stereo frames. These stereo- and temporally-matched feature points are back-projected into the 3D space using the camera intrinsics, forming world- and image-space tracklet histories for each feature point. This set of tracklets, , becomes the input to the multimotion segmentation and estimation engine (Fig. 5b). These tracklets could alternatively be found by associating observations from other 3D sensors (e.g., RGB-D cameras) over time.
The multimotion engine segments tracklets by their observed motion, which is a combination of camera and object motions. In the absence of a priori information about the scene, each group of tracklets is used to estimate a camera egomotion by assuming those tracklets belong to a static object. These camera egomotion hypotheses can later be converted into estimates of the camera and object motions by identifying the static part of the scene (e.g., as in VO).
The segmentation and estimation are posed as a multilabeling problem where a a label, , represents the egomotion hypothesis, , calculated from a group of tracklets, . These labels are assigned by minimizing a cost function over a graph of all observed tracklets (Section III-A). New labels are proposed for each disconnected component of a label’s subgraph through a multiframe RANSAC procedure (Section III-B). Motion labels are assigned to minimize the reprojection residual of the associated trajectory and maximize the label smoothness in the graph (Section III-C). An outlier label, , is assigned to points whose motions are not well explained by any other label. Redundant and oversegmented labels are then merged (Section III-D).
The algorithm iterates this process until label convergence. The final labels are then sanitized and any remaining outliers are rejected (Section III-E) before a final, full-batch estimation of each label (Section III-F). Egocentric or geocentric trajectories are found by selecting a label to represent the motion of the camera (Section III-G).
Iii-a Graph Construction
The rigid-body assumption is approximated through a geometric neighborhood graph, . Each vertex of the graph represents an observed tracklet and is connected to its -nearest-neighbors. The distance between two vertices is defined as the maximum distance in image space between those image tracklets over the entire batch,
where applies the nonlinear perspective camera projection. This allows for edges between features that are consistently close while not connecting features that are ever far apart or that never coexist in a frame. This connectivity forms the basis for label generation and assignment.
Iii-B Label Proposal
The label set, , must dynamically grow and adapt to correctly converge in a given scene. To accomplish this, new labels are generated by splitting label support groups whenever their tracklets’ motions could more accurately be explained by multiple trajectories. A potential new label, , is generated for each fully-disjoint component of the subgraph defined by the label’s support, . This ensures a level of spatial smoothness while allowing new labels to be proposed from large label supports comprised of tracklets from spatially or temporally distinct motions in the scene.
The new label proposals are generated by computing both the dominant motion of the given points and the segmentation between inliers and outliers of that motion. This single-motion segmentation and estimation problem is solved by applying RANSAC in a frame-to-frame fashion, similar to standard VO systems.
Three tracklets are sampled from those visible in the current, , and previous, , frames to estimate the transform between the two frames . The proposed transform is evaluated according to how many tracklet reprojection residuals,
(1) |
are within a given threshold error, . This process is repeated many times and the transform with the largest inlier set is appended to the proposed trajectory hypothesis, .
Any tracklets found to be outliers of the newly estimated models are appended to the outlier label, . New labels are generated from the outlier label last.
Iii-C Label Assignment
Each tracklet, , is assigned a label, , to minimize the energy functional,
(2) |
where gives the label currently assigned to . The energy functional combines the residual error, the label smoothness, and the label complexity term, using a user-selected proportionality parameter, .
Residual
The residual term penalizes labels that poorly describe the observed data. It is defined as the sum of the residual errors of applying the label trajectories to tracklets. The residual for each point-label pair is defined as
where as defined in Eq. 1.
Smoothness
The smoothness term penalizes neighboring tracklets that do not share the same label by an edge cost, . This encourages a piecewise-smooth solution. It is a weighted sum of all edges penalized according to
Complexity
The complexity term encourages a compact solution by penalizing the use of many labels. It is the sum of the per-label cost, , of each label with non-empty support set according to the function,
Outliers
The outlier label, , is designed to be attractive to all points whose motions are not well explained by existing labels. The residual energy of the outlier label decays exponentially with that of the best-fitting label,
where and are tuning parameters. Points that are well-explained by an extant label will have high outlier data cost. The label cost, , for the outlier label is zero as outliers are assumed to always exist.
Given the current label set, -expansion (e.g., PEARL [29]) or convex optimization (e.g., CORAL [3]) assigns a label to each tracklet to minimize the residual and smoothness energies of Eq. 2. The minimization can result in an oversegmentation due to outliers and poorly estimated intermediate trajectories. Model merging is therefore used to improve the motion estimation.
Iii-D Label Merging
Two labels, and , may be merged if relabeling all as would decrease the total energy of Eq. 2. This occurs when the increase in residual error due to reduced overfitting is less than the cost of using the label, , and any change in smoothness.
Only the periods during which the two labels’ supports overlap are considered because there is no cost for applying a new label to portions of the batch in which the tracklets do not exist. When more than one merge would reduce the total energy, the one that results in the greatest decrease in cost is chosen. Merging continues until no more merges would reduce (2). The outlier label, , is excluded from merging.
The merging stage only considers label pairs with tracklets adjacent in , i.e., those where is connected to . If they are disconnected, merging the two supports would be undone by the splitting routine (Section III-B). If the two support sets are connected then the new label will persist until the next labeling stage.
The algorithm iterates the label splitting, assignment, and merging (Sections III-B to III-D) until the labels converge or a maximum number of iterations have been reached. The final label set is then sanitized (Section III-E) before being used to estimate the final trajectory hypotheses (Section III-F).
Iii-E Label Sanitization
The final labels are sanitized to refine the segmentation output and remove noisy tracklets before the final model estimation. A merging step first combines any redundant labels regardless of graph connectivity as there is no subsequent splitting stage. After merging, any label with fewer than a minimum number of support tracklets or that exists for fewer than a minimum number of frames is merged with . Likewise, tracklets whose residual error is greater than a threshold, , are relabeled as outliers. This provides a consistent set of tracklets for the batch estimation of each motion.
Iii-F Final Model Estimation
For each label, an egomotion hypothesis, , is estimated to explain the motion of the tracklets, , using bundle adjustment. This paper follows the single-motion approach described by Barfoot [33] to estimate the trajectory of each label in an egocentric frame.
The system state, , of each label is defined to include both the estimated pose transforms, , and the landmark points, . The state is defined for each pair of transforms and points belonging to label .
Each observation, , of point at pose is modeled as
The measurement model, , encompasses both the motion model, , which applies transforms to observed points, and the sensor model, , derived from the perspective camera model. The model assumes additive Gaussian noise, , with zero mean and covariance . The least-squares cost function is defined as the difference between the measurement model and the observations,
where,
This cost is linearized about an operating point, , and then minimized using Gauss-Newton. The operating point is perturbed according to the transform perturbations, , and landmark perturbations, , which together form the full state perturbation, . An indicator matrix is defined such that . See [33] for more detail.
The error function is linearized using , the Jacobian of the measurement function, ,
where the matrix operator is defined in [33]. The cost function can then be linearized using
The optimal perturbation, , for minimizing the cost function, , is the solution to . Each element of the state is then updated according to
where the vector operator is defined in [33]. The cost function is then relinearized about the updated operating point and the process iterates until convergence.
Iii-G Egocentric and Geocentric Trajectories
Egocentric
Egocentric motions are expressed in the moving camera frame, . The egocentric motion of the camera is identity by definition and the egocentric motions of the scene are given by
One of these motions is the egocentric motion of the static world caused by the camera motion.
Geocentric
Geocentric motions are expressed in some earth-attached frame. The geocentric motion of the camera is given by the hypothesis motion estimated from the static background,
where the static label may be selected by heuristics as in VO (e.g., label support size).
The geocentric motions of the rest of the scene are given by
where is the object deformation matrix and is assumed to be identity, (i.e., rigid body). The initial transform,
relates the camera to the center of motion of each object, . The object center is calculated from the centroid of all points, , projected into the first observed frame,
where is the first frame where is observed, and is arbitrary and assumed to be identity. This averaging allows the centroid estimate to adjust as new points are observed due to rotation or occlusion.
Iv Experiments and Results
The accuracy of the MVO algorithm is evaluated on real-world data collected using a Bumblebee XB3 stereo camera and a Vicon motion capture system. Unlike existing multimotion datasets designed for egomotion or segmentation (e.g., [34, 35]), this new dataset contains ground truth for the entire scene which consisted of a moving camera observing four moving blocks (Fig. 1).
The results (Figs. 6 and 7) were produced from a -frame image sequence. Estimation was performed as a 48-frame sliding window, with neighbors for each point in the graph, RANSAC iterations per new label, , , , , , and a minimum model size and length of points and frames, respectively. Feature detection and matching were performed using LIBVISO2 [36] and the Gauss-Newton minimization was performed with Ceres [37] using analytical derivatives (Section III-F).
The transforms between the Vicon frames and our estimated frames are arbitrary, so the first frames of the estimates are used to calibrate this transform. All errors are reported for geocentric trajectory estimates. The camera egomotion (Fig. 7) exhibits a maximum total drift of m, of total path length, and a maximum rotational error of , , and in roll-pitch-yaw, respectively. This error is reasonable compared to the level of drift in other model-free, camera-only VO systems [34].
The motion estimates of the bodies varied with their motion and their visibility. The two swinging blocks partially left the camera frustum near the beginning of the segment which caused estimation dropouts and higher translational errors. A portion of the geocentric error of each motion is due to the error in the camera motion estimate. The maximum translational and rotational errors for each block are m, , , and for the top-left block; m, , , and for the top-right block; m, , , and for the bottom-left block; and m, , , and for the bottom-right block (Fig. 6).
The gaps in the trajectories occur when the motion was not successfully segmented or the final estimation stage (Section III-F) fails to converge. This is often due to poor feature distribution, especially when objects reach the edge of the camera frustum. These discontinuities, coupled with the dynamic camera motion, caused errors in the trajectory estimate.
V Discussion
MVO consistently segments and estimates the motions of the camera and the four independent objects when they are fully visible. As is to be expected, the two blocks that partially exited the camera frustum had segmentation failures and higher errors, largely due to incomplete feature tracklets.
Feature distribution is an important factor in the performance of any sparse approach [38]. This problem is exacerbated for dynamic objects that take up a small portion of the scene. Additionally, the appearance of these objects is often more volatile making feature association even more difficult. The algorithm is dependent on the accuracy of the input tracklet set and cannot estimate motions for which there are insufficient features. Feature dropouts and lack of tracklets are therefore significant challenges for this type of pipeline, and the development of more robust feature detection and matching pipelines is an ongoing area of research.
The distribution of features also influences the estimate of the center of the motion. It is difficult to infer the structure of an object beyond the surfaces that are observed in the batch without a priori knowledge of the object’s shape. This means the centroid of the observed feature points for a label can often be a bad estimate of the the label’s true center of motion.
Vi Conclusion
This paper extends the classic VO pipeline to address the multimotion estimation problem. The multimotion visual odometry (MVO) pipeline segments and estimates all rigid motions in a scene. It does so by using feature-tracking, sparse graph segmentation, and multiframe batch motion estimation such that it avoids many of the limitations of other multimotion estimation approaches.
We evaluated MVO on a multimotion dataset with ground-truth trajectories for all motions in the scene. Its estimation accuracy is comparable to similarly defined egomotion-only VO systems while also exhibiting similar limitations. We are actively exploring the application benefits of continuous-time state estimation and continuous labels, as well as implementing the pipeline such that it can be used in real-time.
Acknowledgment
We would like to thank Paul Amayo for his insightful conversations on convex optimization and multilabeling, and for his implementation of CORAL.
References
- [1] H. P. Moravec, “Obstacle avoidance and navigation in the real world by a seeing robot rover,” Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford, CA, USA, 1980.
- [2] L. Matthies and S. Shafer, “Error modeling in stereo navigation,” IEEE Journal on Robotics and Automation, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 239–248, 1987.
- [3] P. Amayo, P. Piniés, L. M. Paz, and P. Newman, “Geometric Multi-Model Fitting with a Convex Relaxation Algorithm,” in CVPR, 2018.
- [4] A. Milan, L. Leal-Taixé, I. D. Reid, S. Roth, and K. Schindler, “MOT16: A benchmark for multi-object tracking,” 2016, arXiv: 1603.00831 [cs.CV].
- [5] J. P. Costeira and T. Kanade, “A multibody factorization method for independently moving objects,” IJCV, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 159–179, 1998.
- [6] B. K. Horn and B. G. Schunck, “Determining optical flow,” Artificial intelligence, vol. 17, no. 1-3, pp. 185–203, 1981.
- [7] S. Vedula, S. Baker, P. Rander, R. Collins, and T. Kanade, “Three-dimensional scene flow,” in ICCV, vol. 2, 1999, pp. 722–729.
- [8] P. Lenz, J. Ziegler, A. Geiger, and M. Roser, “Sparse scene flow segmentation for moving object detection in urban environments,” in IV, 2011, pp. 926–932.
- [9] M. Menze and A. Geiger, “Object scene flow for autonomous vehicles,” in CVPR, 2015, pp. 3061–3070.
- [10] Y. Bar-Shalom, X. R. Li, and T. Kirubarajan, Estimation with applications to tracking and navigation: theory algorithms and software. John Wiley & Sons, 2004.
- [11] M. Byeon, H. Yoo, K. Kim, S. Oh, and J. Y. Choi, “Unified optimization framework for localization and tracking of multiple targets with multiple cameras,” CVIU, vol. 166, pp. 51 – 65, 2018.
- [12] L. Zhang, Y. Li, and R. Nevatia, “Global data association for multi-object tracking using network flows,” in CVPR, 2008, pp. 1–8.
- [13] Z. Kalal, K. Mikolajczyk, J. Matas et al., “Tracking-learning-detection,” PAMI, vol. 34, no. 7, p. 1409, 2012.
- [14] C.-C. Wang, C. Thorpe, S. Thrun, M. Hebert, and H. Durrant-Whyte, “Simultaneous localization, mapping and moving object tracking,” IJRR, vol. 26, no. 9, pp. 889–916, 2007.
- [15] A. Kundu, K. M. Krishna, and C. V. Jawahar, “Realtime multibody visual slam with a smoothly moving monocular camera,” in ICCV, 2011, pp. 2080–2087.
- [16] R. Hartley and A. Zisserman, Multiple view geometry in computer vision. Cambridge university press, 2003.
- [17] C. Tomasi and T. Kanade, “Shape and motion from image streams under orthography: a factorization method,” IJCV, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 137–154, 1992.
- [18] K. Kanatani, “Motion segmentation by subspace separation and model selection,” in ICCV, vol. 2, 2001, pp. 586–591.
- [19] R. Vidal and R. Hartley, “Motion segmentation with missing data using power factorization and gpca,” in CVPR, 2004, pp. 310–316.
- [20] Y. Wu, Z. Zhang, T. S. Huang, and J. Y. Lin, “Multibody grouping via orthogonal subspace decomposition,” in CVPR, vol. 2, 2001, pp. 252–257.
- [21] T. Li, V. Kallem, D. Singaraju, and R. Vidal, “Projective factorization of multiple rigid-body motions,” in CVPR, 2007, pp. 1–6.
- [22] R. Vidal and S. Sastry, “Optimal segmentation of dynamic scenes from two perspective views,” in CVPR, vol. 2, 2003, pp. 281–286.
- [23] M. A. Fischler and R. C. Bolles, “Random sample consensus: a paradigm for model fitting with applications to image analysis and automated cartography,” Communications of the ACM, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 381–395, 1981.
- [24] P. H. Torr, “Geometric motion segmentation and model selection,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol. 356, no. 1740, pp. 1321–1340, 1998.
- [25] R. Sabzevari and D. Scaramuzza, “Multi-body motion estimation from monocular vehicle-mounted cameras,” T-RO, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 638–651, 2016.
- [26] K. Schindler, U. James, and H. Wang, “Perspective n-view multibody structure-and-motion through model selection,” in ECCV. Springer, 2006, pp. 606–619.
- [27] K. E. Ozden, K. Schindler, and L. V. Gool, “Multibody structure-from-motion in practice,” PAMI, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1134–1141, 2010.
- [28] C. Nieuwenhuis, E. Töppe, and D. Cremers, “A survey and comparison of discrete and continuous multi-label optimization approaches for the potts model,” IJCV, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 223–240, 2013.
- [29] H. Isack and Y. Boykov, “Energy-based geometric multi-model fitting,” IJCV, vol. 97, no. 2, pp. 123–147, 2012.
- [30] C. Rother, V. Kolmogorov, and A. Blake, “Grabcut: Interactive foreground extraction using iterated graph cuts,” in ACM Transactions on Graphics, vol. 23, no. 3, 2004, pp. 309–314.
- [31] A. Roussos, C. Russell, R. Garg, and L. Agapito, “Dense multibody motion estimation and reconstruction from a handheld camera,” in ISMAR, 2012, pp. 31–40.
- [32] M. Rünz and L. Agapito, “Co-fusion: Real-time segmentation, tracking and fusion of multiple objects,” in ICRA, 2017, pp. 4471–4478.
- [33] T. D. Barfoot, State Estimation for Robotics. Cambridge University Press, 2017.
- [34] A. Geiger, P. Lenz, and R. Urtasun, “Are we ready for autonomous driving? the kitti vision benchmark suite,” in CVPR, 2012, pp. 3354–3361.
- [35] R. Tron and R. Vidal, “A benchmark for the comparison of 3-d motion segmentation algorithms,” in CVPR, 2007, pp. 1–8.
- [36] A. Geiger, J. Ziegler, and C. Stiller, “Stereoscan: Dense 3d reconstruction in real-time,” in IV, 2011, pp. 963–968.
- [37] S. Agarwal, K. Mierle, and Others, “Ceres Solver.”
- [38] S. Farboud-Sheshdeh, T. D. Barfoot, and R. H. Kwong, “Towards estimating bias in stereo visual odometry,” in CRV, 2014, pp. 8–15.
Comments
There are no comments yet.