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Multi-UAV Data Collection Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks

by   Safwan Alfattani, et al.

In this paper, we propose a framework design for wireless sensor networks based on multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Specifically, we aim to minimize deployment and operational costs, with respect to budget and power constraints. To this end, we first optimize the number and locations of cluster heads (CHs) guaranteeing data collection from all sensors. Then, to minimize the data collection flight time, we optimize the number and trajectories of UAVs. Accordingly, we distinguish two trajectory approaches: 1) where a UAV hovers exactly above the visited CH; and 2) where a UAV hovers within a range of the CH. The results of this include guidelines for data collection design. The characteristics of sensor nodes' K-means clustering are then discussed. Next, we illustrate the performance of optimal and heuristic solutions for trajectory planning. The genetic algorithm is shown to be near-optimal with only 3.5% degradation. The impacts of the trajectory approach, environment, and UAVs' altitude are investigated. Finally, fairness of UAVs trajectories is discussed.


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