Multi-subject MEG/EEG source imaging with sparse multi-task regression

by   Hicham Janati, et al.

Magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography (M/EEG) are non-invasive modalities that measure the weak electromagnetic fields generated by neural activity. Estimating the location and magnitude of the current sources that generated these electromagnetic fields is a challenging ill-posed regression problem known as source imaging. When considering a group study, a common approach consists in carrying out the regression tasks independently for each subject. An alternative is to jointly localize sources for all subjects taken together, while enforcing some similarity between them. By pooling all measurements in a single multi-task regression, one makes the problem better posed, offering the ability to identify more sources and with greater precision. The Minimum Wasserstein Estimates (MWE) promotes focal activations that do not perfectly overlap for all subjects, thanks to a regularizer based on Optimal Transport (OT) metrics. MWE promotes spatial proximity on the cortical mantel while coping with the varying noise levels across subjects. On realistic simulations, MWE decreases the localization error by up to 4 mm per source compared to individual solutions. Experiments on the Cam-CAN dataset show a considerable improvement in spatial specificity in population imaging. Our analysis of a multimodal dataset shows how multi-subject source localization closes the gap between MEG and fMRI for brain mapping.



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