Multi-Class classification of vulnerabilities in Smart Contracts using AWD-LSTM, with pre-trained encoder inspired from natural language processing

03/21/2020 ∙ by Ajay K. Gogineni, et al. ∙ 0

Vulnerability detection and safety of smart contracts are of paramount importance because of their immutable nature. Symbolic tools like OYENTE and MAIAN are typically used for vulnerability prediction in smart contracts. As these tools are computationally expensive, they are typically used to detect vulnerabilities until some predefined invocation depth. These tools require more search time as the invocation depth increases. Since the number of smart contracts is increasing exponentially, it is difficult to analyze the contracts using these traditional tools. Recently a machine learning technique called Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) has been used for binary classification, i.e., to predict whether a smart contract is vulnerable or not. This technique requires nearly constant search time as the invocation depth increases. In the present article, we have shown a multi-class classification, where we classify a smart contract in Suicidal, Prodigal, Greedy, or Normal categories. We used Average Stochastic Gradient Descent Weight-Dropped LSTM (AWD-LSTM), which is a variant of LSTM, to perform classification. We reduced the class imbalance (a large number of normal contracts as compared to other categories) by considering only the distinct opcode combination for normal contracts. We have achieved a weighted average Fbeta score of 90.0 analyze a large number of smart contracts and help to improve the security of these contracts.

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